Косвенная речь в английском языке. Indirect speech or reported speech
Рассмотри, когда употребляется Косвенная речь в английском языке. Понятие «косвенная речь» относится к предложениям, сообщающим нам информацию со слов другого человека. Такие предложения почти всегда употребляются в разговорном английском.
Форма прошедшего времени
В случае если глагол, передающий нам слова говорящего, стоит в форме прошедшего времени (т.е. said), то часть предложения, которая собственно содержит слова говорящего, также будет в форме прошедшего времени. Таким образом, мы как бы делаем «шаг назад» от формы глагола в начальном предложении
|He said the test was difficult||Она сказала, что смотрела телевизор каждый день|
|Джек сказал, что ходил в школу каждый день|
Форма настоящего времени
В случае если глагол, передающий нам слова говорящего, стоит в форме настоящего простого, настоящего совершенного или будущего времени (например, says), то временная форма глагола, стоящего в части предложения, которая собственно содержит слова говорящего, остается без изменения.
|Пример:||He says the test is difficult||Он говорит, что тест сложный|
|She has said she watches TV every day||Она сказала, что смотрит телевизор каждый день|
|Jack will say he comes to school every day||Джек скажет, что ходит в школу каждый день|
Если мы передаем чьи-то слова, содержащие неоспоримые факты, то в части предложения, которая собственно содержит слова говорящего, также сохраняется форма настоящего времени.
|Пример:||The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important||Учитель сказал, что фразовые глаголы очень важны|
Когда мы преобразуем предложение из прямой речи в косвенную речь, зачастую необходимо заменить местоимение, чтобы оно совпадало по форме с подлежащим.
|Пример:||She sa >I want to bring my children.» → She sa >she wanted to bring her children|
|Jack sa >My wife went with me to the show.» → Jack sa >his wife had gone with him to the show|
Изменения наречия времени
Также важно заменять наречия времени, чтобы они совпадали с моментом речи. Следовательно, переводя предложение из прямой речи в косвенную, мы заменяем наречия на подходящее по смыслу.
today, tonight → that day, that night
tomorrow → the day after / the next day / the following day
yesterday → the day before / the previous day
now → then / at that time / immediately
this week → that week
next week → the week after / the following week
last week → the week before / the previous week
ago → before
here → there
|Пример:||She sa >tomorrow .» → She sa >the next day|
|Jack sa >yesterday .» → Jack sa >the day before|
Вопросы в косвенной речи
Когда мы при помощи косвенной речи передаем вопросы, особое внимание нужно обращать на соединительные союзы и порядок слов в предложении. Обратите внимание, что когда мы передаем общие вопросы, подразумевающие ответ «да» или «нет», мы соединяем собственно вопрос со словами автора при помощи ‘if’. Если же мы передаем вопросы, использующие вопросительные слова (why, where, when и т.д.), мы используем это вопросительное слово.
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Indirect speech. Exercises 2 (Косвенная речь. Упражнения 2)
Exercise 3 Indirect speech: questions
See note to Exercise 1 .
Put the following questions into indirect speech.
1 ‘Who has been using my typewriter?’ said my mother.
2 ‘ Do you want to see the cathedral?’ said the guide.
3 ‘ Do you mind working on the night shifts?’ he asked.
4 ‘ Would you like to come with us?’ they said.
5 ‘ Who did you give the money to?’ asked Ann.
6 ‘ How long does it take to get to Edinburgh by coach?’ asked the tourist.
7 ‘ How much do you think it will cost?’ he said.
8 ‘ What did you miss most when you were in prison?’ Mary asked the ex-convict.
9 Another passenger came in and said, ‘Is this seat taken?’
10 ‘ How do you get on with your mother-in-law?’ said Paul.
11 ‘ How did you get into the house?’ they asked him.
12 ‘ What were you doing with these skeleton keys?’ said Mr Jones. ‘Were you trying to get at the secret files?’
13 ‘ Did you sleep well?’ asked my hostess.
14 ‘ Have you been here long?’ the other students asked him.
15 ‘ Can you tell me why Paul left the university without taking his degree?’ Paul’s sister asked.
16 ‘ How many people know the combination of the safe?’ said the detective.
17 ‘ Are there any letters for me?’ said Mary.
18 ‘ How long have you been learning English?’ the examiner said.
19 ‘ Why aren’t you taking the exams?’ said Paul.
20 ‘ Are these free-range eggs?’ said the customer.
21 ‘ Where are you going for your summer holidays?’ I asked them.
22 ‘ Will it be all right if I come in a little later tonight?’ asked the au pair girl.
23 ‘ Have you ever seen a flying saucer?’ said the man.
24 ‘ Where can I park my caravan?’ she asked the policeman.
25 ‘ Would you like a lift?’ said Ann.
‘ Which way are you going?’ I said.
26 ‘ Who do you want to speak to?’ said the telephonist.
27 ‘ Does anyone want tickets for the boxing match?’ said Charles.
28 ‘ What are you going to do with your old car?’ I asked him.
29 ‘ Do you grow your own vegetables?’ I asked.
30 ‘ What train are you going to get?’ my friend inquired.
31 ‘ Could you change a five-pound note? I’m afraid I haven’t got anything smaller,’ said the passenger to the conductor.
32 ‘ How many sleeping pills have you taken?’ said the night sister.
‘ I have no idea,’ said Mr Jones sleepily.
33 ‘ Could we speak to the manager, please?’ said the two men.
‘ Have you an appointment?’ said the secretary.
34 ‘ Do you think you could live entirely on your own for six months,’ said Tom, ‘or would you get bored?’
35 ‘ Did any of you actually see the accident happen?’ said the policeman.
36 ‘ Could I see Commander Smith?’ the lady asked.
‘ I’m afraid he’s in orbit,’ I said. ‘Would you like to leave a message?’
Exercise 4 Indirect speech: questions, advice, requests, invitations, suggestions
‘ What about’ often introduces a suggestion and is then reported by suggest:
‘ What about flying?’ he said.
He suggested flying.
‘ I can’t come at 1.00,’ said Ann. ‘Then what about 2.00?’ said Tom.
Ann said she couldn’t come at 1.00, so Tom suggested 2.00.
‘ Why don’t you’ often introduces suggestions or advice and is then reported by suggest or advise:
‘ I wonder if Tom is coming,’ said Ann.
‘ Why don’t you ask him?’ I said.
Ann wondered if Tom was coming. I advised her to ask him or I suggested (her) asking him.
‘ Could I have’ is normally reported by ask for:
‘ Could I have a cup of coffee?’ she said.
She asked (me) for a cup of coffee.
‘ Could you’ used for requests is reported by ask + object + infinitive:
‘ Could you sign the book, please?’ he said.
He asked me to sign the book.
But when ‘Could you’ introduces an ordinary question the verb is reported unchanged:
‘ Could you live entirely on you own?’ he said.
He asked if I could live entirely on my own.
‘ Would you mind waiting/signing’ etc. can be reported:
He asked me to wait/sign etc. or
He asked iff would mind waiting/signing etc.
offer can be used in two constructions:
‘ Would you like a drink?’
He offered me a drink.
‘ Shall I wait for you? I’ll wait for you if you like.’
He offered to wait for me.
When the infinitive is used it must be placed directly after offer. The person addressed is not mentioned in this construction.
Put the following into indirect speech.
1 ‘ Shall we have dinner somewhere after the theatre?’ said Peter.
‘ Yes, let’s,’ said Ann. ‘What about going to that place Jack is always talking about?’ ( For Yes, let’s put Ann agreed.)
2 ‘ Jack’s parents have asked me to supper tomorrow night,’ said Ann.
‘What shall I wear?’
‘ I should wear something warm, dear,’ said her mother. ‘It’s a terribly cold house.’
3 ‘ I’m broke,’ said Jack.
‘ Shall I lend you some money?’ said Peter.
4 ‘ It will take a little time to look up your file,’ said the clerk.
‘Is it worth waiting,’ said Ann, ‘or shall I go away and come back later?’
5 ‘ Shall I have to do the whole exam again if I fail in one paper?’ said the student.
‘ Yes,’ said the teacher.
6 ‘ Where will you be tomorrow,’ I said, ,‘in case I have to ring you?’
‘ I shall be in my office till six,’ said the old man, ‘and after that at my flat. I shan’t be going to the club.’
7 ‘ What shall I do with this cracked cup?’ Mary asked.
‘ You’d better throw it away,’ said her mother.
8 ‘ Shall I ever see him again?’ she wondered.
9 ‘ Would you mind getting out of the car?’ said the driver. ‘I have to change a wheel.’
‘ Shall I help you?’ I said.
10 ‘ I’ve run out of petrol,’ said the man.
‘Could you possibly give me a lift to the next village?’
11 ‘ Shall we go for a walk?’ said Peter.
‘ I like walking,’ said Ann, ‘but at the moment my only comfortable walking shoes are being mended. What about going for a drive instead?’
12 You’ve got a lot of parcels,’ he said.
‘Shall I carry some of them for you?’
13 ‘ Shall we be in time?’ muttered Tom, looking at his watch. (Use wonder.)
14 ‘ What shall I do with all this foreign money?’ said Peter.
‘ Why don’t you take it to the bank and get it changed?’ said Mary.
15 ‘ Would you like a cigarette?’ said Peter.
‘ No, thanks,’ said Jack. ‘I don’t smoke.’
16 ‘ Would you like to come with us?’ they said. ‘There’s plenty of room in the car.’
‘ I’d love to,’ said Ann.
17 Ann (on phone): Could you do without me today, Mr Jones? I’ve got an awful cold and I think it might be better if I stayed at home.
Mr Jones: I should certainly stay at home, Ann. And you’d better take tomorrow off too if you aren’t better.
18 Mary (on phone): Paul, I’ve just come back to my flat to find a complete stranger asleep in my chair. He’s still here, and still asleep! What shall I do?
Paul: Why don’t you wake him up and ask him who he is? There’s probably some quite simple explanation.
19 ‘ I’m not quite ready,’ said Peter. ‘Could you wait a few minutes?’
‘ I can’t wait long,’ said Jack. ‘The train goes at ten.’
20 ‘ Would you mind taking off your hat?’ I said to the woman in front of me.
‘ But the theatre’s almost empty!’ she said. ‘Why don’t you move along a bit?’
21 ‘ I often see lights in the empty house across the road,’ said Albert.
‘Do you think I should report it?’
22 ‘ If this house was yours what changes would you make?’ I said.
‘ I’d pull it down and build a modern one on the same site,’ said the window- cleaner. ‘The site’s all right.’
23 ‘ Could I have your name and address, please?’ said the travel agent.
24 ‘ Shall I send it round to your hotel, sir?’ the shop assistant asked the tourist.
‘ I’m not staying in the town,’ said the tourist. ‘I’ll take it with me.’
25 ‘ How long will you go on looking for them?’I asked one of the search party.
‘ We don’t search at night. We’ll stop when it gets dark and start again at first light tomorrow.’
26 ‘ We can’t discuss this over the phone. Shall we meet here in my flat tomorrow?’ I said.
‘ I’d rather you came to my office,’ he said. ‘Could you get here in half an hour?’
27 ‘ Could I have 40p, please?’ said the boy. ‘I want to buy an ice-cream.’
28 ‘ Would you like to sleep on the floor of my flat?’ he asked us.
‘ Or would you rather go to a hotel?’
29 ‘ Could you help me with my luggage, please?’ she said. ‘If you take the two big ones I’ll take the small one.’
‘ It’s ridiculous to take three suitcases for a weekend,’ I said. ‘Couldn’t you manage with two?’
30 ‘ I couldn’t come on Monday,’ said Ann.
‘ Then what about Tuesday?’ said Peter.
‘ All right,’ said Ann.
Exercise 5 Indirect speech: commands, requests, invitations, advice
Put the following sentences into indirect speech, using tell/order/urge/ask/beg/invite/advise/warn/remind + object + infinitive, or ask (+ object) + for, or, in some cases, ask + infinitive.
1 ‘ Don’t put sticky things in your pockets,’ said his mother.
2 ‘ Please, please don’t do anything dangerous,’ said his wife.
3 ‘ Go on—apply for the job,’ said my friend. ‘It would just suit you.’
4 ‘ I should say nothing about it if I were you,’ said my brother.
5 ‘ Would you please wait in the lounge till your flight number is called?’ she said.
6 ‘ Don’t lend Harry any money,’ I said to Ann. ‘He never pays his debts.’
7 ‘ Could you please ring back in half an hour?’ said the secretary.
8 ‘ Would you mind moving your case?’ said the other passenger. ‘It’s blocking the door.’
9 ‘ Remember to book a table,’ said Ann.
10 ‘ Get into the right lane,’ said the driving instructor.
11 ‘ Avoid Marble Arch,’ said the policeman. ‘There’s going to be a big demonstration there.’
12 ‘ Hold the ladder,’ he said. ‘It’s rather unsteady.’
‘ Why don’t you tie it at the top?’ I said. ‘It’s much safer than way.’
13 ‘ Read the questions twice,’ said the teacher, ‘and don’t write in the margin.’
14 ‘ You’d better not leave your money lying about,’ said one of the students.
15 ‘ Why don’t you open a bank account?’ said another. (Use advise.)
16 ‘ Would you like to have lunch with me today?’ said Tom.
‘ I’m afraid I couldn’t; I can’t leave the office,’ said the girl.
17 ‘ Don’t take more than two of these at once,’ said the doctor, handing me a bottle of pills.
18 ‘ Could I speak to Albert, please?’ I said.
‘ He’s still asleep,’ said his mother.
‘ Then please wake him,’ I said. ‘I have news for him.’
19 ‘ I’d buy the big tin if I were you,’ said the grocer.
20 ‘ You’re being exploited,’ said the other au pair girls. ‘You ought to leave your job.’
21 ‘ Fasten your seat belts; there may be a little turbulence,’ said the air hostess.
22 ‘ Don’t drive through fog with only a fog light on,’ he said, ‘or oncoming drivers may take you for a motorcycle.’
23 ‘ Could I see your driving licence?’ said the policeman.
24 ‘ You’d better sweep up that broken glass,’ I said.
25 ‘ The bathroom’s empty now,’ she said. ‘Will you put the light out when you’ve finished?’
26 ‘ Remember to insure your luggage,’ my father said.
27 ‘ Please don’t drink any more,’ said his wife. ‘Don’t forget that we have to drive home.’
28 ‘ Do go to a dentist, Tom, before your toothache gets any worse,’ I said.
29 ‘ Why don’t you cut your hair?’ he said. ‘You’d find it much easier to get a job if you looked tidy.’
30 ‘ Could I have some more pudding, please?’ said the boy.
Exercise 3 1 she asked who had been using her 2 he asked if I wanted 3 he asked if I minded 4 they asked if I would like to come with them/they invited me to come with them 5 she asked who I had given 6 he asked how long it took 7 he asked how much I thought it would cost 8 she asked him what he had missed most when he was/had been 9 he asked if the seat was taken 10 He asked how I got on with my 11 they asked him how he had got 12 he asked what I was/had been doing with the skeleton . and if I was/had been trying 13 she asked me if I had slept 14 they asked him if he had been there 15 she asked if I could tell her why Paul (had) left 16 he asked how many . .. knew 17 she asked if there were . for her 18 he asked how long I had been 19 he asked why I wasn’t 20 the customer asked if they were 21 I asked where they were going for their 22 she asked if it would be . if she came .. . that night 23 he asked if I had ever seen 24 she asked him where she could park her 25 she asked if I would like . I asked which way she was going 26 she asked who I wanted 27 he asked if anyone wanted 28 I asked what he was going to do with his 29 1 asked if she grew her own 30 he asked what train I was going 31 she asked him if he could change . . . and said she was afraid she hadn’t got/and apologized for not having 32 she asked how many . he had taken. He said he had no idea 33 they asked if they could see the manager/they asked to see the manager. The secretary asked if they had 34 he asked if I thought I could live . on my own . or if I would get 35 he asked if any of us had actually seen 36 she asked if she could see/she asked to see/she asked for Commander Smith. I said I was afraid he was in orbit and asked if she would like
Exercise 4 1 he suggested having . . . Ann agreed and suggested going . . . Jack was always 2 she said Jack’s parents had asked her . the following night and asked what she should wear. Her mother advised her to wear . as it was 3 he said he was broke. Peter offered to lend him 4 the clerk said it would take . to look up her file. Ann asked if it was worth waiting or if she should 5 he asked if he would have to do . if he failed . . . The teacher said that he would 6 I asked where he would be the next day in case I had to ring him. He said that he would be in his . — at his flat. He wouldn’t be going 7 Mary asked what she should do with the cracked cup and her mother advised her to throw 8 she wondered if she would ever see 9 he asked me to get out. . . and he had to change . I offered to help 10 he said he’d run . . . and asked me to give him/asked for a lift 11 he suggested going . . . She said she liked . . . but that her only . . . shoes were being .. . She suggested going 12 he said I had a lot.-. . and offered to carry some of them for me 13 he wondered if they would be 14 he asked what he should do with all the money. Mary advised him to take . . . and get/Mary suggested taking .. . and getting 15 Peter offered jack a cigarette. Jack thanked him and said he didn’t smoke 16 They asked if she’d like to go/invited her to go with them, saying that there was . . . Ann said she’d love to/Ann accepted 17 she asked Mr Jones if he could do without her that day as she had . and thought it might. if she stayed. Mr Jones advised her to stay . . . and to take the next day off too if she wasn’t better 18 Mary told Paul that she’d just come back to her flat. in her chair. He was still there . and she asked/wanted to know what she should do. Paul advised her to wake him and ask him who he was, adding that there was 19 he said he wasn’t quite . . . and asked Jack to wait/if he could wait.. . Jack said he couldn’t wait long because the train went 20 I asked her to take off her hat/if she would mind taking . .. She pointed out that the theatre was . and suggested my/me moving 21 he said he often saw . and asked if I thought he should 22 I asked what changes he would make if the house was his. He said he’d pull. . . The site was all right 23 he asked for my name 24 he offered to send it round to his hotel/asked if he should send . . . The tourist said he wasn’t staying . .. and he’d take it with him 25 I asked (him) how long they would go on looking . He said they’d stop when it got. . . and start. the following day 26 I said we couldn’t discuss it over the phone . . . and suggested meeting in my flat the following day. He said he’d rather I came to his . . . and asked if I could get there 27 he asked for 40p to buy an ice-cream/as he wanted to buy an ice-cream 28 he asked (us) if we would like . of his flat, or if we would rather 29 she asked me to help her with her luggage, and said that if I took .. . she’d take . I said it was ridiculous . .. and asked if she couldn’t manage . .. but she said she couldn’t 30 Ann said she couldn’t come .. . (so) Peter suggested Tuesday. .. Ann agreed (to this)
Exercise 5 (The verb of command given below is not necessarily the only possible one. See also the note to Exercise 1 )
1 she told him not to put. in his 2 she begged him not to do 3 he urged me to apply . as it would just suit me 4 he advised me to say nothing 5 she asked them to wait in the lounge till their flight number was called 6 I advised her not to lend . as he never paid 7 she asked him to ring 8 he asked me to move my case/asked if I’d mind moving my case as it was blocking 9 she reminded him to book 10 he told/warned me to get 11 he warned me to avoid Marble Arch as there was going 12 he told me to hold the ladder as it was . I suggested tying/advised him to tie it, . . as it was much safer 13 he told them to read . .. and not to write 14 he warned me not to leave my money 15 he advised me to open 16 he invited her to lunch that day. She said she was afraid she couldn’t as she couldn’t leave/She refused, explaining that she couldn’t leave 17 he warned me not to take more than two of them 18 I asked to speak to Albert/asked if I could speak . . . She said he was . I asked her to wake him as 1 had 19 he advised me to buy 20 they said I was being exploited and that I ought to leave my job/and advised me to leave 21 she told them to fasten their . as there might be 22 he warned me not to drive . or oncoming drivers might take me 23 he asked to see my licence 24 I advised him to sweep up 25 she said the bathroom was empty and asked me to put. .. when I had 26 he reminded me to insure my 27 she begged him not to . and reminded him that they had to 28 I urged Tom to go . before his toothache got 29 he advised me to cut my hair, saying that I would find . if I looked 30 he asked for some more
Reported speech — косвенная речь (direct speech — прямая речь).
Правила преобразования direct to reported
Примеры согласования времен:
|Все были уверены, что Борис хорошо сдаст экзамены.||Everybody was sure that Boris would pass the exams very well.|
При использовании косвенной речи, мы обычно говорим в прошедшем времени, например am/is → was. are → were, have/has → had, will → would, can → could, know — > knew etc.
|today||→||that day (тот день) или оставить today|
|now||→||than (затем) или оставить now|
|yesterday||→||the day before|
|tomorrow||→||the next day|
|… ago||→||… before|
|this (morning)||→||that …|
|these …||→||those …|
|here (здесь)||→||there (там)|
|last year||→||the year before (годом ранее)|
|last month||→||the month before (месяцем ранее)|
|last …||→||the … before|
|next year||→||the following year (в следующем году)|
|next …||→||the following …|
|Таблица преобразования прямой речи в косвенную|
|Прямая речь||Косвенная речь|
|Present Simple||“I am tired.” “I love you.”||Past Simple||She said she was tired. He said he loved her.|
|“We don’t like rock music.”||They said they didn’t like rock music.|
|“I can swim.”||He said he could swim.|
|Present Continuous||“I’m reading a book.”||Past Continuous||She said she was reading a book.|
|“We aren’t watching TV.”||They told us they were not watching TV.|
|Present Perfect||“I’ve passed all my exams.”||Past Perfect||Jack said he had passed all his exams.|
|“I’ve never been to Rome.”||Mary said she had never been to Rome.|
|Present Perfect Continuous||“I’ve been waiting for you for half an hour.”||Past Perfect Continuous||He told me he had been waiting for me for half an hour.|
|Past Simple (остается в Past Simple или преобразовывается в Past Perfect.)||“I was born in Rome.”||Past Perfect||She mentioned she had been born in Rome.|
|“I went to the cinema.”||He explained he had gone to the cinema.|
|“We worked.”||They told us they had worked.|
|“We didn’t know that.”||They claimed they hadn’t known that.|
|Past Continuous||“I was sleeping at 5 o’clock.”||Past Perfect Continuous||He said he had been sleeping at 5 o’clock.|
|We were having dinner.”||They told me they had been having dinner.|
|Future Simple||“I will help you.”||Future Simple in the Past (will→would)||He told me he would help me.|
|“I won’t forget.”||She said she wouldn’t forget.|
|Future Continuous||“I’ll be waiting for you.”||Future Continuous in the Past||She said she would be waiting for us.|
|Future Perfect||“I’ll have finished that then.”||Future Perfect in the Past||He promised he would have finished it then.|
Say или tell
for orders and request
Косвенная речь в приказах и просьбах (for orders and request). При передаче команды, просьбы или приказа в косвенной речи в английском языке используется инфинитив глагола с частицей «to” – «to do”, «to stand”, «to read” и т.д.
|direct||‘Don’t shout‘, I said to Jim.|
|reported||I told Jim not to shout.|
|direct||‘Can you open the door for me, Tom?’, Ann asked.|
|reported||Ann asked Tom to open the door for her.|
Главное предложение в косвенной речи может вводиться с помощью глагола ask, если это просьба или tell, если это приказ. И чтобы не повторять все время «he told” или «she asked”, используйте и другие слова:
Косвенная речь образуется по правилу: +that-clause
по правилу: +to-inf
по правилу: somebody+to-inf
|He said to me: «Ring me up tomorrow.»||He asked (suggest) to ring me up the next day.|
Перевод вопросительных предложений из прямой речи в косвенную
При переводе вопросов из прямой речи в косвенную у вас должно получиться сложносочинённое предложение, где слова автора будут главной частью, а косвенная речь — придаточной. То, как будет выглядеть ваше новое предложение в косвенной речи, зависит от того, с какого слова начинался вопрос в прямой речи.
Если прямая речь начиналась со слов what, where, when, who, which, whose, why, how many, how long и т.п., то в косвенной речи убирается вопросительный знак и меняется порядок слов в предложении. Сказуемое ставится после подлежащего, т.е. новое предложение становится, по сути, повествовательным:
|direct||He asked, «Where is my book?»|
|reported||He asked me where his book was.|
|direct||Nadia asked Annie, «What is he look like?»|
|reported||Nadia asked Annie what he was look like.|
|direct||We asked, «Who did this?»|
|reported||We asked who had done that.|
|direct||She asked, «How will you pay?»|
|reported||She asked me how I would pay.|
Если же оригинальное предложение с прямой речью начиналось с глагола to have, to be, can или may, то после слов автора ставится союз «if» или «whether», который в данном случае переводится как «ли», и ни в коем случае не как «если»:
Обратите внимание, что после этого «if» (которое переводится как «ли») можно использовать будущее время, а вот после «if», которое переводится как «если» — нельзя:
Что же касается ответов в косвенной речи, то вместо слов «yes» и «no» в них используется либо положительная, либо отрицательная форма смыслового глагола:
Reported (indirect) speech. Часть 2
Here is an Upper Intermediate English Lesson Plan (B2) that will help you teach:
Target Grammar: Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)
Target Vocabulary: Crime
Note: The Answer Sheet for this English Lesson plan is available for download below.
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Look at the pictures. Who do you think is the criminal? What gives him away? What is his story?
Three Culprits ESL Lesson Grammar point: Reported Speech, Vocabulary: Crime
1. Read the text and fill in the blanks.
My cousin Ronnie was a burglar. Well, he probably would be still hadn’t he been _______________for 2 years. He couldn’t get away with it last time because one of the neighbors _______________witnessed everything, and testified against him. I told him many times that he could not escape the law. I told him there were honest ways _______________but he wouldn’t listen. He said to me once he was doing it for the adrenaline, for the feeling he got when he managed to outwit the cops.
2. Mark the statements T for true and F for false.
- The witness of the burglary was Ronnie’s neighbour.
- Ronnie was a thief because he needed the money.
- Ronnie wanted to outwit the policemen.
Indirect Speech How to Form/ Usage
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Here is how some of the tenses are transformed:
Indirect speech – reported speech
Choose the correct form for each gap below.
What is indirect speech or reported speech?
When we tell people what another person said or thought, we often use reported speech or indirect speech. To do that, we need to change verb tenses (present, past, etc.) and pronouns (I, you, my, your, etc.) if the time and speaker are different. For example, present tenses become past, I becomes he or she, and my becomes his or her, etc.
- Sally: ‘ Idon’t have time.’ ⇒ Sally sa >she didn’t have time.
- Peter: ‘ I am tired .’ ⇒ He sa >he was tired.
Omission of that
We often leave out that after reporting verbs like say, think, etc.
- She said she was late. (=She sa >thought I would get the job.
say or tell?
The most common verbs we use in reported speech are say and tell. We must pay attention here. We say tell somebody something, and say something (to somebody).
- They told me (that) they would help me. (NOT They said me they would help me .)
- He said (that) he didn’t have a car. (NOT He told that he didn’t have a car .)
Tense changes in indirect speech
When a person said something in the past and now we tell somebody what that person said, the time is different, and for this reason, the verb tenses change. Look at a summary of these changes.
Changes in expressions
There are adverbs or expressions of time and place that change when we report what someone said. Here you have a list.
Questions in indirect speech
We use the normal order of words in reported questions, i.e. the subject comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use do or did.
Imperatives in indirect speech
When we report an order or instruction, we use the form ask or tell someone to do something.
Pronoun changes in indirect speech
In reported or indirect speech we must also pay attention to the use of pronouns. When a person tells us something, he or she uses the first person (I, me, my, we, us, our) to talk about himself or herself and the second person (you, your) to talk about us, the person listening. But when we tell someone else what that person said, we are going to use the third person (he, she, his, her, etc.) to talk about the speaker and the first person (I, me, my) to talk about ourselves, the listener.
- ‘ I will help you .’ ⇒ He sa >would help me.
- ‘That’s my pen.’ ⇒ She sa >her pen.
- ‘ I need your help.’ ⇒ She sa >she needed my help.