Названия праздников на английском языке
В ниже следующих таблицах рассмотрены праздники в России, США и Великобритании. Каждый праздник написан на английском языке с переводом.
Public hol >
New Year’s Day
New Year Holiday Week
Orthodox Christmas Day
Defender of the Fatherland Day
День Защитника Отечества
International Women’s Day
Международный женский день
Spring and Labor Day
Праздник Весны и Труда
День народного единства
*даты актуальны на 2020 год
Popular hol >The Old New Year on January 14 – Старый Новый год
Public holidays in the USA (Праздники в США)
В 2020 году 2 января в США – выходной день.
Public holidays in the United Kingdom (Праздники в Великобритании)*
*даты праздников актуальны на 2020 год
Так как в 2020 году 1 января выпадает на воскресенье, поэтому в Англии, Уэльсе и Северной Ирландии 2 января – выходной день. В Шотландии выходной день – 3 января.
Hol > Many festivals and holidays in Britain are centuries old. Every town, village and hamlet in Britain has its own traditions, some involving months of careful planning and preparations of costumes and choreography, others requiring simply a worrying desire to make a complete and utter fool of oneself.
Holidays in the UK can be roughly divided into four overlapping groups:
national holidays (in four constituencies of the UK);
special observances with historical background.
Bank holidays are Public Holidays and have been recognized since 1871. The name Bank Holiday comes from the time when banks were shut and so no trading could take place.
Even though banks are still closed on these days many shops today now remain open. Shops, museums and other public attractions, such as historic houses and sports centers, may close on certain public holidays, particularly Christmas Day.
Traditionally many businesses close on Bank Holidays to enable the workers to have a holiday. This time is often spent with the family on mini breaks and outings. Because of this, anyone who works on Bank Holidays usually gets paid extra – “time-and-a-half” or even “double time”, negotiated for them by the Trades Unions.
There are currently a total of 8 permanent bank and public holidaysinEngland and Wales, 9 in Scotlandand10 in Northern Ireland. These includeChristmas DayandGood Friday, which in England, Wales and Northern Ireland are“common law”holidays(they are not specified by law as bank holidays but have become customary holidays because of common observance). Here is the list of current bank holidays in all the parts of the UK:
TRADITIONS AND HOL >
Mervin Garrett 3 years ago Views:
1 TRADITIONS AND HOLIDAYS IN THE UK AND THE USA JANUARY UP-HELLY-AA (UK) The Shetlands are islands near Scotland. In the ninth century men from Norway came to the Shetlands. These were the Vikings. They came to Britain in ships and carried away animals, gold, and sometimes women and children, too. Now, 1,000 years later, people in the Shetlands remember the Vikings with a festival. They call the festival Up-Helly-Aa. Every winter the people of Lerwick, a town in the Shetlands, make a model of a ship. It’s a Viking longship, with the head of a dragon at the front. Then, on Up-Helly-Aa night in January, the Shetlanders dress in Viking clothes. They carry the ship through the town to the sea. There they burn it. They do this because the Vikings put their dead men in ships and burned them. But there aren’t any men in the modern ships. Now the festival is a party for the people of the Shetland Islands. THE THIRD MONDAY OF JANUARY MARTIN LUTHER KING S BIRTHDAY (USA) Martin Luther King was an important black leader who wanted equality for black people and fought for their civil rights. Preaching non-violence as Gandhi he tried not to consider the blacks as second-class citizens. He was murdered in Because of his work, Congress made his birthday a public holiday in FEBRUARY FEBRUARY 14TH ST. VALENTINE S DAY (UK, USA) Nobody knows very much about St. Valentine. One story is that he was murdered by Roman soldiers in the third century AD because he was a Christian. He gave a poor girl some money before he died, and so other Christians called him the saint of love. St. Valentine is the saint of people in love, and St. Valentine’s Day is February 14th. On this day people send Valentine cards and presents to their husbands, wives, boyfriends and girlfriends. You can also send a card to a person you don’t know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it. Some British newspapers have a page for Valentine’s Day messages on February 14th. THIRD MONDAY OF FEBRUARY PRESIDENTS DAY (USA) FEBRUARY 29TH Every four years February has an extra day. Tradition says that on this day girls ask boys to go to the movies or out to dinner. A girl can even ask a boy to marry her! Life is changing nowadays, however. Girls often invite boys to parties or dinners any day of the year. So this tradition may be dying.
2 MARCH MARCH 1ST ST. DAVID S DAY (UK) This day is very important for Welsh people. St. David is the patron, or national saint of Wales. The Welsh celebrate this day and wear daffodils in the button holes of their coats or jackets. MARCH 17TH ST. PATRICK S DAY (UK, USA) St. Patrick was an Irish saint and his day is very important for Irish people all over the world. It is very popular in cities where there are many Irish Americans. Green is the Irish colour and some bars sell green beer. People often wear something green on this day. In New York the Irish people always have a big St. Patrick’s Day parade. APRIL APRIL 1ST APRIL FOOLS DAY (UK, USA) April 1st is April Fool’s Day in Britain. This is a very old tradition from the Middle Ages (between the fifth and fifteenth centuries). At that time the servants were masters for one day of the year. They gave orders to their masters, and their masters had to obey. Another story is that it began in France in the sixteenth century. In 1564, the king of France changed the first day of the new year from April 1st to January 1st. Some people did not accept this, and on April 1st the other people made fun of them. Nowadays, people play tricks on each other, so you have to watch and listen very carefully on this day. EASTER (UK, USA) The Easter weekend is in late March or early April, but the exact date changes every year. Easter is a Christian holiday which celebrates the day when Jesus Christ came back from the dead. It is an ancient symbol of spring and new life. On Easter Sunday people give coloured and chocolate eggs to each other and send cards. Some cities have Easter parades with games and sports and a big Easter egg hunt. In the U.S.A. many homes organise Easter egg hunt. Children look for dyed hard-boiled eggs hidden around the house. The President himself has an annual Easter egg hunt on the lawn around the white House. MAY MAY 1ST MAY DAY (UK) May 1st was an important day in the Middle Ages. In the very early morning, young girls went to the fields and washed their faces with dew. They believed that this made them very beautiful for a year after that. Also on May Day the young men of each village tried to win prizes with their bows and arrows, and people danced round the maypole. Many English villages still have a maypole, and on May 1st the villagers dance around it. LAST MONDAY OF MAY MEMORIAL DAY (USA) This special day is for people to remember those who died in wars. Many people remember their dead friends and relatives on this day, too.
3 MOTHER S DAY AND FATHER S DAY (USA) One Sunday in May is Mother’s Day and one Sunday in June is Father’s Day. Children usually spend the day with their parents. They give them cards, flowers or presents. Many businesses give presents to parents on these days. JUNE JUNE 14TH FLAG DAY (USA) In 1777 the «Stars and Stripes» became the official flag of the U.S.A. Flag Day was first celebrated in 1877 on the flag’s hundredth birthday. Many people display a flag on this day, but it is not a major holiday and businesses stay open. JUNE 24TH MIDSUMMER S DAY (UK) Midsummer’s Day, June 24th, is the longest day of the year. On that day you can see a very old custom at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is one of Europe’s biggest stone circles. A lot of the stones are ten or twelve metres high. It’s also very old. The earliest part of Stonehenge is nearly 5,000 years old. But what was Stonehenge? A holy place? A market? Or was it a kind of calendar? We think the Druids used it for a calendar. The Druids were the priests in Britain 2,000 years ago. They used the sun and the stones at Stonehenge to know the start of months and seasons. There are Druids in Britain today, too. And every June 24th a lot of them go to Stonehenge and the sunrise ceremony is held here. On that morning the sun shines on the famous stone — the Heel stone. For the Druids this is a very important moment in the year. But for a lot of British people it’s just a strange old custom. In some parts of Cornwall, Northumbria and Scotland mid-summer fires are lit as in pre-christian times when this ritual was performed to give strength to the sun and drive out evil. JULY JULY 4TH INDEPENDENCE DAY (USA) On this day in 1776 the United States declared its independence from England. It was the beginning of a new nation. On the Fourth of July families and friends celebrate, and every town and city has parades, games and sports with prizes. There are picnics and barbecues and in the evening there are big fireworks displays. SEPTEMBER THE FIRST MONDAY OF SEPTEMBER LABOUR DAY (USA) It is a holiday to honour of the nation’s working people. This is a day of rest for the workers. It is celebrated by labour union parades. It also marks the end of summer and the beginning of the school year. Public schools below the college level open just after this day.
4 OCTOBER THE SECOND MONDAY OF OCTOBER COLUMBUS DAY (USA) In fourteen hundred and ninety-two Columbus sailed the ocean biue. This is a song that many children learn about Christopher Columbus and his journey to America. Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the Santa Maria and landed in the Bahamas in On Columbus Day people display a flag to honour the man who discovered their country. OCTOBER 26TH 1886 THE STATUE OF LIBERTY (USA) On this day America received a gift from the people of France — The Statue of Liberty, which became a symbol of the New world. It is standing on Liberty Island in New York. OCTOBER 31ST HALLOWEEN (UK, USA) October 31st is Halloween, and you can expect to meet witches and ghosts that night. Halloween is an old word for Hallows Evening, the night before All Hallows or All Saints’ Day. On that one night of the year, ghosts and witches are free. Well, that’s national story. A long time ago people were afraid and stayed at home on Halloween. But now in Britain it is a time for fun. There are always a lot of parties on October 31st. At these parties people wear masks and they dress as ghosts and witches, or as Dracula or Frankenstein’s monster. Some people make special Halloween lamps from a large fruit — pumpkin. First they take out the middle of the pumpkin. Then they cut holes for the eyes, nose and mouth. Finally they put a candle inside the pumpkin. Children in America have a special custom of Trick or Treat. They knock on the people’s door dressed as ghosts and witches and holding a big bag. They shout Trick or Treat!. If you give them money or sweets, they will go away. If not they will play a trick» on you, such as drawing pictures or writing something on the house or car windows with soap. NOVEMBER NOVEMBER 5TH GUY FAWKES DAY (UK) Bonfire Night on 5th November, is one of Britain’s most popular festivals. People have fireworks parties where they build big wood fires (bonfires) in their gardens and burn Guys» on the top of them. A guy» is a model of Guy Fawkes. Guy Fawkes was a leader of a group of men who hated King James I. They decided to blow up the Houses of Parliament in London, with the king and his noblemen inside it on 5th November, But the plot was not successful. Guy Fawkes and his followers were arrested and later executed. People in Britain want to remember this piece of their history called The Gunpowder Plot and so they celebrate Bonfire Night» or Guy Fawkes’ Night» every year. Children usually make «Guys» with straw, old clothes and newspapers before November 5th and they use them to collect money for fireworks. Children stand with their Guys» in busy streets or outside shops and ask people for a penny for the guy». The best Guys» get the most money. On November 5th the Guys» are placed on the top of a large pile of wood (a bonfire) and burned.
5 THE FIRST SUNDAY IN NOVEMBER VETERAN CAR RALLY (UK) Every first Sunday in November, a famous Veteran Car Rally takes place in England. About three hundred veteran cars from all over the world are driven from Hyde Park in London to Brighton, a town on the south coast of England. That’s a distance of seventy kilometres. The Veteran or Vintage» cars have to be more than fifty years old and in a very good condition. Before 1896 a man with a red flag had to walk in front of cars. In 1896 it changed. A group of merry drivers broke their flags and drove to Brighton. There they had a party. Now, the rally is a sporting tradition. A lot of people in the rally wear vintage» clothes, too. NOVEMBER 11 TH VETERANS DAY (USA) NOVEMBER 11 TH REMEMBRANCE DAY (UK) This is a special day to remember all the people who fought in the wars — the living as well as the dead. There are memorial services, special dinners and speeches. In London, in the middle of Whitehall, there is Sir Edwin Lutyens’ Cenotaph, which commemorates the dead of the two world wars. In a ceremony held here every November in the presence of the Queen, wreaths of poppies are laid at the foot of the Cenotaph. THE FOURTH THURSDAY IN NOVEMBER THANKSGIVING DAY (USA) On the fourth Thursday of November a national holiday with big dinners and parties is held in the U.S.A. It is called Thanksgiving day. In 1621, the Pilgrim Fathers who were among the first European settlers in North America, celebrated their first harvest and thanked God. It was a difficult year but people still had food to eat. William Bradford, the Governor of Massachusetts, decided to have a thanksgiving dinner for all the people. He wanted a way to share this good fortune with the American Indians who helped them. The meal lasted three days. Today the traditional Thanksgiving meal is similar to the first. Usually there is a turkey, sweet potatoes, corn, and pumpkin pie. Thanksgiving is a special day for families to get together. NOVEMBER 30TH ST. ANDREW S DAY (UK) This day is the national holiday of Scotland. St. Andrew was martyred on an X-shaped cross and became the Scottish patron saint. Nowadays St. Andrew’s cross is the national flag of Scotland (white diagonals in the blue oblong) and is also a part of the British national flag. The Scottish national symbol is a wild plant — a thistle.
6 DECEMBER — CHRISTMAS WHAT IS THE MEANING OF CHRISTMAS Christmas, or Christ Mass, is when we celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. It was originally celebrated on January 6th, the date still observed by the Armenian Church, but in the fourth century A.D. the date of Christmas Day was changed to December 25th. This was a good time for the newly converted pagans to celebrate Christ’s birth, for the date marked the winter Solstice, the shortest day of the year, and was a day on which many pagan gods were honoured. There are several possible reasons why we give presents at Christmas: before Christianity came, offerings were made to pagan gods on December 25th. In the Bible story of nativity, the three kings brought gifts to the infant Christ and there is our old friend St. Nicolaus, whose date of presentgiving — December 6th — was later transferred to the 25th, especially in some English speaking countries. HAPPY CHRISTMAS So this is Christmas And what have you done? Another year over And a new one just begun. And so this is Christmas I hope you have fun The near and the dear ones The old and the young. A very great Christmas and a Happy New Year Let’s hope it’s a good one without any tears. And so this is Christmas For weak and for strong For rich and the poor ones The world is so large. And so happy Christmas For black and for white For yellow and red ones Let’s stop all the fights. (John Lennon)
7 CHRISTMAS IN THE UK London’s Christmas decorations Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. They want to say Thank you for British help in the World War II. It is a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Also in central London, Oxford Street and Regent Street always have beautiful decorations at Christmas. Thousands of people come to look at them. Cards, trees and mistletoe In 1846 the first Christmas cards began in Britain. That was five years after the first Christmas tree. Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, brought this German tradition (he was German) to Britain. He and the Queen had a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in A few years after, nearly every house in Britain had one. Traditionally people decorate their trees on Christmas Eve — that is December 24th. They take down the decorations twelve days later, on Twelfth Night (January 5th). An older tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of this green plant with its white berries over a door. Mistletoe brings a good luck, people say. Also, at Christmas British people kiss their friends and family under the mistletoe. Carols Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money and sing traditional Christmas songs or carols. There are a lot of very popular British Christmas carols. Three famous ones are: Good King Wenceslas, The Holly and The Ivy and We Three Kings. Christmas Eve British children do not open their presents on December 24th. Some children hang a stocking at the end of their bed. Father Christmas brings their presents at night. Then they open them in the morning of the 25th. The presents are put into stockings or the larger ones are arranged around the Christmas tree. There is another name for Father Christmas in Britain — Santa Claus. That comes from the European name Saint Nicholas. In the traditional story he lives at the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and cities all over Britain. Then on Christmas Eve he visits every house with his reindeer. He climbs down the chimney and leaves lots of presents. Some people leave something for him, too. A glass of wine and some biscuits, for example. Christmas Day In Britain the most important meal on December 25th is Christmas dinner. Nearly all Christmas food is traditional, but a lot of traditions are not very old. For example, there were no turkeys in Britain before And even in the nineteenth century, goose was the traditional meal at Christmas. But not now. A twentieth-century British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas and Brussels sprouts. There are sausages and bacon, too. After the turkey, there is Christmas pudding. Crackers are also usual at Christmas dinner. These came to Britain from China in the nineteenth century. Two people pull a cracker. Usually there is a small toy in the middle. Often there is a joke on a piece of paper, too. Most of the jokes in the Christmas crackers are not good. For British children Christmas means pantomimes, too. The pantomime is a traditional Christmas show at the theatre — for example: Puss in Boots, The Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella and Little Red Riding Hood. 0n Christmas Day at three o’clock in the afternoon, the Queen makes a speech on radio and TV. It is ten minutes long. In this speech she talks to people of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth about the past year. This speech is filmed a few weeks before Christmas and the Queen spends Christmas with her family at Windsor Castle near London. Boxing day December 26th is Boxing Day. Traditionally boys from the shops in each town asked for money at Christmas. They went from house to house on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each house people gave him money. This was a Christmas present. So the name of December 26th comes from the boys’ wooden boxes. Now, Boxing Day is the real day for Christmas parties and visiting friends. All the men like to watch their favourite sports on TV.
8 New Year’s Eve At midnight nearly everybody in Britain wants to hear the chimes of Big Ben. At many parties people join hands and sing Auld Lang Syne» (The good old days), a poem by the Scottish poet Robert Burns. First Footing In Scotland the name for New Year’s Eve is Hogmanay. After midnight people visit their friends. And they take a present — a piece of coal. Why? Because traditionally the first visitor of the year must carry coal into the house. This is first footing». It brings good luck. It also helps to make a fire in the middle of winter. People wish one another LANG MAY YOUR LUM REEK (hope your chimney will smoke for a long time). CHRISTMAS AND CUSTOMS ALL AROUND EUROPE — In Luxembourg, Holland and Belgium presents are opened on December 6th. — In Denmark children put rice pudding and nuts under the Christmas tree. — In Holland people like to eat rabbit and venison at Christmas. — In Denmark they eat duck, goose and rice pudding. — In Portugal they eat fish and drink sweet port wine. — In Belgium Christmas dinner consists of sausages, cakes and hot wine.
Hol > Posted or Updated on Июль 24, 2020 by Татьяна Н.
Из этого урока вы узнаете о национальных, религиозных, и языческих праздниках, которые отмечаются в разных странах. Небольшие тексты о каждом празднике помогут вам подготовиться к экзамену по английскому языку, так как содержат важную лингвострановедческую информацию.
2. Main National and Religious (Pagan) Holidays
Guess the Russian names for the celebrations below:
- New Year’s Day
- St. Valentine’s Day
- Pancake Day =Shrovetide
- Defender of Motherland Day (23 февраля — День защитника отечества)
- Women’s Day
- St. Patrick’s Day
- April Fool’s Day
- May Day
- Victory Day
- Independence Day
- Day of Knowledge
- Teacher’s Day
- Thanksgiving Day
- Guy Fawkes Night
- Boxing Day
3. Main British Holidays
- The main holidays in Great Britain are New Year’s Day, Good Friday (Пятница на Страстной неделе), Easter Monday, Labour Day, Christmas Day and Boxing Day.
- Public holidays are called Bank Holidays because on these days banks, most of shops and offices are closed.
- Besides public holidays the British people observe certain traditions on such days as Pancake Day, Guy Fawkes’ Night, St. Valentine’s Day, April Fool’s Day, St. Patrick’s Day, Halloween which are ordinary working days.
- Christmas is the main religious holiday in many countries. It is celebrated in Europe on the 25th of December, in Russia on the 7th of January. It is the day when Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ, though the actual date of his birth is not known.
- Boxing Day (UK) is the next day after Christmas, when rich people give small presents in boxes to the servants, etc.
- The New Year is not as widely celebrated as Christmas in Britain. Some people ignore it completely and go to bed at usual time. Others, however, do celebrate it in one way or another. The most common way of celebration is a New Year Party.
- Hogmanay is the most popular holiday in Scotland, celebrated on the New Year’s Eve.
- Easter is a very important festival in the Christian calendar. The Christians think that on the day of Easter Jesus Christ rose from dead. The actual date of Easter changes every year. The preparations for Easter really begin 40 days before Easter, on Shrove Tuesday. This marks the beginning of a period of fasting, called Lent.
- There are also local festivals all through the year. In spring village children dance round Maypole (Майское дерево). Maypole is an ancient emblem of the beginning of summer. In ancient times it was a pagan spring festival. A tall pole decorated with flowers, maypole, was erected to which ribbons were attached and held by the dancers.
- Guy Fawkes Night (UK) is on November, 5. Guy Fawkes Night goes back to the days of King James I who was vary unpopular as a protestant. So some of the Catholics made an attempt to blow up the Houses of Parliament. The man who was to explode the building was Guy Fawkes. But he was discovered, arrested and hanged. Since that time people burn a straw dummy of Guy Fawkes on a bonfire on the 5th of November.
4. Main American Holidays
- National festivals in the USA are New Year’s Day, Thanksgiving Day, Independence Day, St. Patrick’s Day, Mother’s Day and Memorial Day.
- New Year’s Day is a national holiday, people make promises, for example, to give up smoking, to change their life. Ii is not so important as in Russia, very small presents are given.
- New Year Resolution is a promise which many people make before New Year. Usually they want to improve their behavior and to give up bad habits.
- Valentine’s Day is on February, 14. It is not a national holiday, but the holiday of love and friendship. It is one of the most loved holidays. There are romantic cards and gifts for those who are in love. The most popular wish:” Be my Valentine!” There are also cards for wives, husbands, mothers, fathers, and even grandparents.
- St. Patrick’s Day is on March, 17. It was a religious holiday. Now everybody wears green this day. Former Irish holiday (the Irish believed that St. Patrick freed Ireland from snakes.) Day of fun and parades.
- April Fool’s Day is on April, 1. No one is sure how April’s Fool day got started. Most countries seem to have a day when people play tricks on each other. Children specially like these days. Some people think that trick days begin in India. People there celebrate a spring holiday called Holi. A favourite trick on Holi is to fill a bamboo pipe with coloured powder and blow the powder at people. Sometimes children fill the pipe with water and squirt each other.
- Mother’s Day, Father’s Day are the days when the Americans thank their parents, give them flowers and presents. In the UK there is only Mother’s Sunday.
- Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (страстная пятница). On that dat people eat hot cross buns.
- Easter Sunday, Easter Monday. The symbol of the holiday is Easter Bunny who brings the eggs. The traditional presents coloured eggs and chocolate eggs.
- Memorial Day is the last day in May. It is a national holiday (since 1917) to remember the soldiers killed in battles.
- Independence Day is on July,4. This day the USA became independent from the United Kingdom in 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was accepted.
- Labour Day is the day to honor all the workers.
- Columbus Day is on October, 12, 1492 Columbus discovered America. Now it is celebrated on the second Monday in October.
- Thanksgiving Day is on the 4th Thursday in November. It is a national holiday, family holiday. The first Europeans on American land wanted to thank God and the Native Americans for their help during their first winter which was cold and hungry. Traditional food is turkey, mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie. The original celebration was held in 1621 after the first harvest in New England.
- Halloween is on October, 31. It is not a national holiday. Children make costumes and go from house to house. They say “ Trick or treat ”. People give them tasty things.
- Christmas is a national and religious holiday which is celebrated on December, 25. Santa Claus visits children and puts their presents into their stockings.
Holidays and Traditions. Задания
Задание 1. Describe any holiday. Your partner will guess.
Задание 2. Answer the questions:
1) What American holidays do you know?
2) What British holidays do you know?
3) What holidays are celebrated both in Russia and the USA / Great Britain?
4) What is your favourite Russian holiday?
5) What is more important for you: a day off or a celebration?
6) How is Christmas celebrated in Great Britain and in Russia?
ОТВЕТЫ вы найдете в конце статьи.
Задание 3. Complete the text about Russian holidays.
Another Russian ______ is Maslenitsa. It used to be a ______holiday. Now it becomes a _____ to celebrate it. This holiday is loved by everybody. People celebrate it at the ____ of February or at the beginning of March. It lasts for a week. During this holiday people ____ the winter ____ and greet spring. In old times people usually cooked _____, had fires, burnt scarecrows of winter, sang songs and danced. _____, which are round and hot, symbolize the Sun. Now it is a merry holiday when people dance, sing sons and cook pancakes. Usually this holiday is ______ in parks.
The most important _____ holidays are Christmas and Easter. In Russia Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of January but in Europe and in the USA on the 25th of December. On that day Christians celebrate the birth of _______, though the actual date of his birth is not known.
The tradition to decorate Christmas tree came from Germany. In Russia this tradition was _____ by Peter the Great. It is a custom to decorate Christmas tree with candles, coloured lights and balls. The _______Christmas colours are red and green. The traditional Christmas food is a roast turkey with vegetables and a Christmas pudding.
Answer the questions:
- What holidays does your family celebrate?
- What is your favourite holiday?
- Does your family have any special New Year traditions?
- Do you cook and eat any special holiday meals?
- Do you celebrate any religious holidays?
- Have you ever tried to celebrate any foreign holidays?
- What is the main holiday in our country? In Great Britain? In the USA?
- What holidays are celebrated throughout the world?
- Are there any differences in the celebrations and customs of New Year in European countries?
Теxt «To Celebrate or Not to Celebrate?»
Read three opinions on the matter of celebrations.
Phil’s opinion about celebrations: I don’t like any celebrations especially Christmas. It is getting more and more commercialized: some people spend lots of money on gifts, while others make lots of money selling gifts. My parents think that it is an old tradition. But I don’t understand the use of celebrating a holiday only because it is tradition. We can choose more interesting activities for holidays instead of sitting at the table with relations and discussing boring family problems. For me there is nothing like playing sports.
Sindy’s opinion about celebrations: Celebrating? I’ve never thought about it. For me any holiday is just a day off. I don’t know if it is important for me what Guy Fawkes did or what evil spirits used o do. I don’t plan what to do. A day comes and my activities begin. There’s only one celebration that matters, it’s my birthday.
Helen’s opinion about celebrations: Celebrating is my joy. I like this perfect atmosphere. It takes time to make all the arrangements. But my favourite celebration is worth many efforts. The best moment is when the guests arrive. They are the people I love best. I greet them. They come to share the joy of the day. Their gifts make me think of the day again and again.
Answer the questions:
- What makes Phil dislike Xmas?
- What do his parents think about celebrations?
- What does he suggest instead of celebrating?
- What kind of person is Sindy, in your opinion?
- What kind of person is Helen, in your opinion?
Express your opinion: to celebrate or not to celebrate?
Страна Великобритания; The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland — Топик по английскому языку
Тема по английскому языку: Страна Великобритания
Топик по английскому языку: Страна Великобритания (The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). Данный текст может быть использован в качестве презентации, проекта, рассказа, эссе, сочинения или сообщения на тему.
Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии – это группа островов, расположенных у северо-западного побережья Европы. Страна омывается Атлантическим океаном, Северным морем и Ирландским морем, которое разделяет Великобританию и Ирландию. Северное море и пролив Ла-Манш разделяют Британские острова от европейского континента. Великобритания включает в свой состав Англию, Шотландию и Уэльс. Их столицы – Лондон, Эдинбург и Кардиф.
Несмотря на небольшую территорию острова, Великобритания богата пейзажами. Самые высокие горы расположены в центральной и северной части Шотландии, в Уэльсе и на северо-западе Англии, но на самом деле они не такие уж высокие. Остальная территория представляет собой плоские равнины на востоке и низины на юге. Двигаясь в юго-западном направлении, можно встретить унылые болота Девона и Корнуолла. В Британии множество рек, самая длинная из которых Северн. Река Темза, на которой расположен Лондон, впадает в Северное море. Многие соединены друг с другом посредством каналов, поэтому внутри страны вполне возможно путешествовать по воде.
Еще одной деталью, требующей внимания, является британский климат. Теплое течение Гольфстрима предопределяет теплые зимы и прохладное лето. Климат в Британии в основном умеренный. Снег никогда не лежит долго, а вместо этого часты дожди и туман. По этой причине в Британии очень сыро.
Высокоразвитая промышленная империя
Великобритания изначально была аграрной страной, где было широко развито овцеводство. Сейчас это высокоразвитая промышленная империя. Великобритания экспортирует машины, корабли, двигатели и прочие товары. Основными направлениями промышленности являются кораблестроение и текстильная промышленность.
Культура и образование
Великобритания также является страной долгих традиций, обычаев и богатой культуры. Образование, полученное в таких университетах как Оксфорд или Кембридж, считается одним из лучших в мире.
Великобритания – это конституционная монархия, где главой государства является Королева. Однако, ее власть ограничена парламентом, который состоит из Палаты Лордов и Палаты Общин.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a part of a group of islands lying off the north-western coast of Europe. The Country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea which is between Great Britain and Ireland. The North Sea and the English Channel separate the British Isles from the European continent. Great Britain consists of three countries: England, Scotland and Wales. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Cardiff.
Variety of landscapes
In spite of being a small island, Great Britain has a great variety of landscapes. The highest mountains are in the central and northern parts of Scotland, in Wales and in the north-west of England but they aren’t really high. The rest of the territory consists of flat plains in the east and of lowlands in the south. Moving southwest one can view bleak moors of Devon and Cornwall. There are many rivers in Britain with the Severn being the longest one. The Thames on which London is situated runs into the North Sea. Many of the rivers are joined with each other by means of canals, so that it’s quite possible to travel in England by water.
One more thing which is worth mentioning is the British climate. The warm current of the Gulf Stream keeps Britain warm in winter and cool in summer. So, the climate is basically mild. Snow never lies for long, however, there is much rain and fog instead. Therefore Britain is called a damp country.
Highly-developed industrial country
Great Britain was originally an agricultural and sheep-farming country. Now it’s a highly-developed industrial country. It exports machinery, vessels, motors and other goods. The chief industries are shipbuilding and textile.
Culture and education
Great Britain is also a country of long-lasting traditions, customs and rich culture. The education received in such universities as Oxford or Cambridge is recognized as one of the best in the world.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen being the head of State. However, her powers are limited by the Parliament which consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons.