Press in the United Kingdom — тема топик по английскому языку

Press in Britain — Пресса в Британии (4)

The press is a mirror of current events. This proves to be true when you look through any newspaper. There are a lot of photos, articles, short and long, that inform readers of the latest events.

It has been claimed that the British read more newspapers than any other people throughout the United Kingdom.

All British papers can be classified as either “quality” or “popular” papers. A “quality” paper is a serious national paper that aims at the educated reader. The best known British newspapers which give serious coverage of the news and comment are “The Times”, “The Gardian”, “The Financial Times” and “The Independant”. They contain information on home and foreign affairs, serious editorials, art and literary reviews. They provide up-to-date financial information and proffesional advertiring.

Some newspapers have colour supplement, with many photographs and advertisements. A popular paper is a newspaper that is designed for the undemanding reader. Such papers have brief and direct news reports and a large number of photographs. Much attention is given to personal stories. Especially when they mention a figure in the public eye, such as a member of a royal family , a political figure or a film star. The style of English in these newspapers is often conversational with much use of slang, catchy headlines. Among these newspapers are “The Daily Express”, “The Daily Mirror”, “The Star”. In addition to national daily newspapers there are nine national papers published on Sundays. Several of them include coloured magazines.

Great Britain (тема «Великобритания» к экзамену)

Данный раздел по теме «Great Britain. Великобритания» предназначен для продолжающих и поможет закрепить и углубить ранее полученные знания. Перед каждым разделом вы найдете вопросы. Постарайтесь ответить на них, прежде чем читать текст. Если вы затрудняетесь ответить, изучите статью «Great Britain. Основные факты для начинающих».

Изучение темы «Great Britain. Великобритания»

(в рамках подготовки к экзамену по английскому языку и расширения страноведческих знания о стране изучаемого языка)

1. The Geographical Position of Great Britain

Answer the questions based on the information you have learnt:

1) What is the official name of Great Britain?
2) What countries does Great Britain consist of and what are their capitals?
3) Why is the UK called an island state?
4) Where is the UK situated? What separates Great Britain from the continent?
5) What are the names of two main islands of the British Isles?
6) What do we call the narrowest part of the English Channel?

Закончите предложения:
1. Great Britain consists of …
2. Great Britain doesn’t include …
3. The UK is made up of …

Переведите предложения:

1. An island is a part of land that is surrounded by water on all sides.
2. Great Britain is an island state and is surrounded by seas on all sides.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland lies on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands – Great Britain and Ireland and about 5 thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244.000 square kilometers. On the island of Great Britain you can find England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland lies on the island of Ireland.

The British Isles are separated from Europe by the English Channel and the North Sea. In the west their coasts are washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

Great Britain is the largest islands in the British Isles. It is also the largest island in Europe and the seventh largest island in the world.

The UK is one of the world’s smaller countries. It is twice smaller than France and Spain.

2. Climate of Great Britain

Answer the questions based on the information you have learnt:
1. What is the British climate like?
2. What is the British weather like?

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the islands. It is mild all the year round. It means that it’s never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly. The coldest months are January and February, the warmest ones are July and August. But the climate is not the same in all parts of England. The western part is warmer than the east. It has also more rain. The North is colder than the South, but in winter the coldest districts are the eastern ones. There is much humidity in the air of England. It is well-known as a foggy country.

  • temperate — умеренный
  • humid — влажный
  • few — fewer
  • little — less

While a heavy fog hung over a big English city for days, only a few miles away in the country, the sky might be cloudless and the sun shining brightly. In London today, however, there are no open coal fires. As a result, there are fewer fogs and the air is clean.

The weather is so changeable that the English often say that they have no climate but only weather. They use the comparison “as changeable as the weather” of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something.

The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains n the afternoon or when it rains all day long. The weather is the favourite topic of conversation in the UK. SOON

В школе этого не расскажут:  Спряжение глагола disconvenir во французском языке.

Answer the questions:

1) Why is the British climate mild? What influences it?
2) Does it vary?
3) Which districts are the coldest in Britain?

3. The Nature of Great Britain

Answer the questions based on the information you have learnt:
1. What are the names for two types of landscape in Great Britain?
2. What is the most picturesque place in England?

  • landscape – ландшафт
  • scenery — пейзаж

The main characteristic of British landscape is that it changes very often.
The Scottish scenery is amasing.

Типично английский пейзаж — равнины (the Lowlands). Фото автора

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. Geographically, the island of Great Britain is divided into two main regions: Lowland Britain (the Lowlands) and Highland Britain (the Highlands). The Lowlands include central, southern and eastern England. They have beautiful valleys and plains.

The Highlands consist of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines and the Lake District. It is mountainous part of Britain, but the mountains are not very high. The highest mountain is Ben Nevis in Scotland (1343m).

Шотландия. Бен Невис — самая высокая точка Великобритании. Фото автора

Scotland is separated from England by the Cheviot Hills, running from east to west. The Pennine Chain extends (stretches) southward from the Cheviot Hills into the Midlands, plain regions with low hills and valleys.

  • the Pennine Chain [‘penaɪn] — Пеннинские горы
  • the Cheviot Hills [‘ʧiːvɪət] — Чевиот-Хилс (горы, отделяющие Шотландию от Англии)
  • the Midlands — Мидлендз (центральные графства Англии)
  • the Lake District — Озерный край

Долина в Шотландии. Фото автора.

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The river Avon is famous for the town of Stratford-on–Avon, the birthplace of Shakespeare. The swiftest river in the British Isles is the Spey. The swift rivers flowing down from the hills into valleys are called “dales”.

  • valley – это такая равнина, по которой протекает речка
  • dale – горная речка, букв. желоб
  • swift river — быстрая река

Узнать больше про природу Великобритании — The British Nature

There is a district in Great Britain which is widely known for it association with the history of English literature and the name of William Wordsworth (1779-1859), the founder of the Lake School of poets. This district is called The Lake District.

Answer the questions and check yourself:

1. What is typical of British landscape?
2. Where are the mountains in Britain?
3. What river does London stand?
4. What British rivers do you know?
5. Which is the highest point in the UK?
6. Which river is associated with the name of Shakespeare?
7. What is the longest river in the UK?
8. What is the Lake District known for?

4. The Population, Nationalities and the Language

Answer the questions based on the information you have learnt:

1) What do we call people who were born in Britain? In Scotland? In Wales?
2) Do people in these countries speak “the same” English?
3) Is English the only language spoken in the UK?

The Population

Переведите предложения:

1. The UK is inhabited by the English, the Scots, the Welsh, the Irish.
2. London, the south and the southeast are the most densely populated areas.

Переведите существительные: population, inhabitants, settlers

The population of the UK is over 57 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. The biggest cities are (… try to remember 8 cities) but except them the most well-known cities are Oxford, Cambridge, Stradford-upon-Avon.

The Language

English is the official language of the UK. But some people speak Gaelic in western Scotland and Welsh in parts of northern and central Wales.

Welsh is a Celtic language and it is very different from English. For example, «Welcome to Wales» is «Croesu i Cymru» in Welsh. Before the 16th century everybody in Wales spoke Welsh, but after Wales was united with England in 1536, Welsh was banned. It started declining, only 500,000 out of 3 mln of population spoke it until 1960s. It was not taught at school and the people thought that their language was dying out. The situation changed only few years ago. Nowadays Welsh is spoken in the government and there is a Welsh TV station. The Welsh are proud of their language.

Уэйльс. Фото автора.

5. The British National Character

Although the British live on the same island, they are very different. Ii is right to say that the English are not like the Scottish, Irish or Welsh (or the other way around). Of course, they have something in common. For example, it is true that British people often talk about the weather, especially if they don’t know each other very well. It is true that they are more reserved than Russian people: they don’t like to show their emotions and they don’t make friends easily with strangers. It also seems to be true that the British are not very good at learning foreign languages.

6. The British Places of Interest, Cities & Towns

Answer the questions based on the information you have learnt:

  1. What famous cities & towns of Great Britain do you know?
  2. What places of interest can you name?

Every year more than eleven million tourists visit Britain. In fact, tourism is an important industry, which enjoys thousands of people. Most visitors come in summer months when they can expect good weather. Usually they spend a few days in London, then they go to other well-known cities. Perhaps the least visited places in England are old industrial towns like Birmigham or Manchester. Below you will find the information about the most visited places of interest in Britain.

В школе этого не расскажут:  Преждепрошедшее время (-mıştı), прошедшее неопределенное время (-ardı) в турецком языке

Stonehenge

If you go to Great Britain you will probably be planning to visit Stonehenge. It is a group of Celtic stones in the south of England. Stonehenge is situated right on a major road, about 12 kilometers from the town of Salisbury. If you really want to feel the magic and mystery of this ancient place, go there early in the morning to see the sunrise. It is worth it.

Равнина Солсбери, Стоунхендж. Фото автора

Hadrian’s Wall

It is one of the Britain’s greatest monument. The wall is 73 miles long and was built by Romans to protect the conqured England from the wild Scotts. The trail called the Hadrian’s Wall Path goes along the Wall through the hills and moors of the north of England.

Mazes

England is famous for its mazes. One of the best mazes is situated at the Hampton Court, a royal palace near London. It consists of one kilometer of paths and it takes 20 minutes to reach the center … if you are lucky.

Самый известный лабиринт в резиденции Генриха VIII (Hampton Court)

River Trips

If you want to have a river trip, go to Oxford or Cambridge for punting. A punt is a type of boat that you move by planting a long pole in the river bed and pushing the boat along. The best place to go punting is the river Cam, which runs through the ancient university. You will enjoy the incredible views of the old colleges and the scenery.

Катание на лодка по реке Кем. Фото автора.

7. The Political System of the UK

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the name of the Queen of England?
  2. Where does the Queen live?
  3. What is the Union Jack?
  4. What does the Union Jack look like and what does it symbolize?
  5. What does the power in the country belong to?

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. The queen is the Head of the State. Everything in the country is done in the Queen’s name. She appoints all the ministers, including the Prime Minister. But the English Queen doesn’t rule the country as she has no power. She is the symbol of the country’s history and its traditions. The Queen is very rich as are the members of the royal family. Also, the government pays her expenses as Head of State, for a royal yacht, train, aircraft and her several palaces. The queen’s image appears on stamps, notes and coins.

1. Elizabeth the First (годы жизни 1533-1603, коронована 17 ноября 1558 года)

2. Queen Victoria (1819-1901, коронована 1 мая 1876 года)

3. Elizabeth the Second (1926 – наст. время, коронована 6 февраля 1952)

The real power in the country belongs to the British Parliament and the British Government. The British Prime Minister (head of the government) is Theresa May (2020-2020).

The British Parliament consists of two Houses (chambers): the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

  • Legislative (the Parliament with the Queen in her constitutional role) — законодательная
  • Executive (Prime Minister and his Cabinet) — исполнительная
  • Juridical (the Royal Court) — судебная

Try to answer the questions:

  1. Who rules Britain officially?
  2. What is special about the political system of the UK?
  3. What is the difference between the House of Lords and the House of Commons?

8. The History of Great Britain

Answer the questions:

  1. Who do the British come from?
  2. Who founded London?
  3. What was the original name of the British capital?

UK newspapers

In Great Britain there are no official government newspapers. The government does not exercise any official control over the newspaper industry and most of the English newspapers are very proud of their peculiarities, their individual styles. British newspapers differ from one another. And although every newspaper has a definite profile, they can be classified into two main groups: quality and popular newspapers.

Quality newspapers are serious, national, daily newspapers, appealing mainly to the upper and middle classes. They are «Financial Times», «The Times», «The Guardian», «The Daily Telegraph».

«The Daily Telegraph» contains reports on national and international news, gives a full covering of sports and other topics. «Financial Times» is read mainly by professional and business people as it contains a comprehensive coverage of industry, commerce and public affairs. «The Guardian» gives a wide coverage of news events and reports on social issues, the arts, education, etc. «The Times» is the most famous newspaper. It is not actually the oldest newspaper in Britain, but some years ago it celebrated its two hundredth birthday. «The Times» represents the views of the establishment and is well-known for its correspondence column.

Popular, tabloid newspapers are smaller in size and contain many photographs. Unlike quality newspapers popular newspapers are not so serious and their stories tend to be sensational. «Daily Express», «Daily Mirror», «Daily Mail», «Daily Star», «The Sun» are popular newspapers. They have a national daily circulation and appeal mainly to the working and middle classes. «Daily Mirror» supports the Labour party. «The Sun» has a larger circulation than any other daily nespaper.

Великобритания — необычайно красивая страна!

The United Kingdom is very small compared with many other countries in the world. However there are only nine other countries with more people, and London is the world’s seventh biggest city. When you travel about the country you can see how the scenery changes right in front of your eyes. Highlands turn into lowlands; forests and hills turn into meadows and plains very quickly. It’s hard to believe, but in Great Britain one you can find practically any type of scenery. Britain is unusually beautiful country! England can be divided for four parts: the Southeast, the Southwest, East Anglia, the Midlands and the North of England.

В школе этого не расскажут:  mermaid

The Southeast is a highly populated region of England. London, the capital of the UK, and such historical cities as Windsor, Dover and Brighton are situated here. When people travel to Britain by sea or by air they usually arrive in the Southeast, for this is where the main passenger ports and airports are. Heathrow airport, one of the world’s busiest airports is about 33 km west of central London.

The Southwest is the region where the main activity is farming. The Southwest used to be known for its pirates. The two principal cities of the region are Bristol and Bath. If you want to see the famous Stonehenge you should also come here. The most westerly point of Great Britain «Land’s End» is also in the Southwest.

East Anglia is very flat and it is another farming region. It has beautiful cities with fine historic buildings such as Cambridge. It is more that half surrounded by the sea.

The Midlands, known as the heart of England, is the largest industrial part in the country. The most important industrial cities are Manchester, Sheffield, Liverpool which is one of Britain’s big ports, and Birmingham. The two famous.

Midlands cities are Stratford-upon-Avon and Oxford. Stratford is the birthplace of William Shakespeare and Oxford is famous for its university.

The North of England has some of the wildest and loneliest parts in the country. Here you can find deep valleys, rivers and waterfalls, hills and mountains. This part of the country is rich in coal. The main attractions of the North of England are certainly the Lake District, the cities of York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Press in the United Kingdom — тема / топик по английскому языку

БРИТАНИЯ И БРИТАНЦЫ

THE BRITISH NEWSPAPERS

In Britain there are 12 national daily newspapers and most people read one of them every day. Daily newspapers are published on every day of the week except Sunday. Sunday newspapers are larger than daily newspapers. All the Sunday newspapers are national. Most national newspapers in Britain express a political opinion, most of them right wing, and people choose the newspaper that they read according to their own political beliefs.

British newspapers can be divided into two groups: quality and popular. The quality newspapers are «The Times», «The Independent», «The Guardian», «The Financial Times» and «The Daily Telegraph». This press is more serious and covers home and foreign news.

The popular newspapers or « tabloids » , so called because of their smaller size are « The Daily Mail » , « The Daily Express», «The Daily Mirror», «The Sun» and «The Daily Star». They like shocking, personal stories. They concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories, featuring violence, the life of the Royal Family, film and pop stars, and sport. They aim to entertain readers rather than inform them. The tabloid press is much more popular than the quality press.

In some countries, newspapers are owned by government or by political parties. But in Britain newspapers are mostly owned by individuals or by publishing companies, and the editors of the papers are usually allowed considerate freedom of expression. It does not mean that the newspapers are without political bias. Papers like «The Daily Telegraph», «The Daily Express» and «The Sun», for example, usually reflect conservative in their opinions comment and reporting, while «The Daily Mirror» and «The Guardian» have a more left wing bias.

Apart from London-based papers, there are many local newspapers. Most of these are evening papers. Besides, nearly every area in Britain has one or more local newspapers.

It won’t be a mistake to say that the British are one of the biggest newspaper-reading nations in the world.

1. What are the British newspapers?

2. What are the quality papers?

3. What is the popular press?

4. Who owns newspapers in Great Britain?

5. Are the papers given freedom of expression?

quality newspapers — пресса высокого качества, газеты полного формата

tabloid — малоформатная газета с коротким текстом и большим количеством иллюстраций; бульварная пресса

emotive reporting — эмоциональная подача материала

publishing company — издательство

bias — предвзятость, уклон

В Британии существует 12 национальных ежедневных газет, и много людей читают одну из них ежедневно. Ежедневные газеты издаются во все дни, кроме воскресенья. Воскресные газеты больше, чем ежедневные. Все воскресные газеты национальные. Много таких британских газет выражают определенные политические взгляды, многие из них — газеты правых, таким образом, люди могут выбирать прессу согласно своих политических убеждений.

Британская пресса делится на две категории: качественная и популярная. К качественным газетам относятся «Таймс», «Индепендент», «Гардиан», «Файненшал таймс» и «Дейли телеграф». Эта пресса более серьезная и охватывает внутренние и внешние навини.

Популярные газеты, или «таблоиды», называемые так за свой маленький формат, — это «Дейли мейл», «Дейли экспресс», «Дейли зеркало», «Сан» и «Дейли стар». Такие газеты любят шокирующие и личные истории. Они сосредотачиваются на более эмоциональной подачи материала, описывая насилие, жизнь королевской семьи, звезд кино и эстрады и спорт. Они больше развлекают читателя, чем информируют. Таблоїдна пресса более популярна, чем качественная.

В некоторых странах газетами владеет правительство или политические партии. Но в Британии в большинстве случаев газетами владеют частные лица или издательские компании, и издателям часто дается значительная свобода слова. Это не значит, что газеты не имеют политической предвзятости. Например, такие газеты, как «Дейли телеграф», «Дейли экспресс» и «Сан», обычно в своих комментариях отражают консервативные мнения, в то время как «Дейли зеркало» и «Гардиан» имеют более левосторонний уклон.

Кроме лондонских газет, есть много местных. Большинство из них вечерние. Кроме того, почти в каждом районе Британии есть одна или несколько местных газет.

Мы не ошибемся, если скажем, что британцы — большие любители газет.

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