Non-defining relative clauses

Relative clauses
презентация к уроку по английскому языку (11 класс) по теме

Презентация к уроку английского языка по теме Relative clauses к учебнику Spotlight 11 Module 2.

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Придаточное предложение, выполняющее в предложении функцию определения. Образуется с помощью относительного местоимения (who/which/that), которое ставится в начале придаточного предложения после определяемого слова. Относительное местоимение иногда может быть опущено.

Существует два типа придаточных определительных: Defining relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses ограничительные распространительные Those who have not yet registered should do so at once. — Те, кто еще не зарегистрировался, должны сделать это незамедлительно Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which I’d never been to before . — Вчера мы ходили в Городской музей, в котором я никогда раньше не был уточняют значение определяемого слова: только те, кто еще не зарегистрировался сообщают дополнительную информацию об определяемом слове — музее

Defining relative clauses • Уточняют, о ком / о чем именно мы говорим. Часто начинаются с относительного местоимения who, which, that.

Мы используем who / that, когда говорим о людях: The lawyer who / that works in this room is the best in the company. Юрист, который работает в этой комнате, лучший в компании. who / that works in this room говорит о том, какой именно юрист Мы используем which / that, когда говорим о вещах, понятиях: The office which / that the CEO prefers is in the city centre. Офис, который предпочитает наш директор, находится в центре. which / that the CEO prefers говорит о том, какой именно офис

Subject and Object relative Clauses Относительные местоимения who/which/that могут быть опущены, если они являются объектом Defining relative clause: The manager (who) we hired last week has already resigned. Менеджер, которого мы наняли на прошлой неделе Наняли кого? – которого :) в смысле менеджера; которого — объект The manager who applied last week has already resigned. Менеджер, который обратился к нам Обратился кто? – который :) в смысле менеджер; который – субъект Если относительное местоимение является субъектом, оно не опускается.

Non-defining relative clauses Используются, чтобы дать дополнительную информацию о человеке или предмете: Mr. Green, who is our best lawyer, is going to leave the company. Нам известен человек, о котором мы говорим – Мистер Грин. Тот факт, что он лучший юрист – дополнительная информация. • В таком типе предложений Relative clause выделяется запятыми. • That в качестве альтернативы who и which НЕ УПОТРЕБЛЯЕТСЯ. • Говоря о компаниях можно употреблять which или who: BMW, who control over 30% of the European car market, are going to expand. Определительное придаточное предложение может относиться не только к отдельному слову, но и ко всему главному предложению целиком. Такое придаточное может вводиться только союзом which. Находится оно всегда после главного предложения: He never admits his mistakes, which is extremely annoying. Он никогда не признает своих ошибок, что безумно раздражает

WHOSE Whose употребляется в Relative Clauses обоих типов и показывает принадлежность (вместо his / her / its / their и т.д.): Mr. Green, whose report you read yesterday, is our accountant. Мистер Грин, чей отчет вы вчера читали, наш бухгалтер.

Compare these two sentences (1) The students who were late were expelled. (defining) Студентов, которые опоздали, не допустили к занятиям (ограничительное) (2) The students, who were late, were expelled. (non-defining) Все студенты не были допущены к занятиям из-за опоздания (распространительное)

Примечание: 1) ограничительное (defining) придаточное определительное предложение существенно ограничивает, делает более узким круг предметов, обозначенных существительным. Его нельзя выбросить из предложения без нарушения смысла. Запятыми такое придаточное никогда не выделяется. 2) распространительное (non-defining) придаточное не сужает круг предметов, а даёт «замечание в скобках/необязательное описание» всех предметов. Оно может быть выброшено из предложения без нарушения смысла и всегда выделяется запятыми (они как раз показывают, что можно выбросить)

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Relative clauses (придаточные определительные предложения)

Relative clauses (придаточные определительные предложения)

Subject or object

Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clause.

Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun

(who, which, that, whom, whose).

The relative pronoun can refer to the subject of the clause.

-That’s the woman who bought my car.

The woman (subject) bought my car (object).

Or the relative pronoun can refer to the object of the clause.

This is the car that I used to own.

I (subject) used to own the car (object).

Субъект или объект

Придаточные определительные предложения дают дополнительную информацию о существительном в главном предложении.
Придаточные определительные предложения начинаются с относительного местоимения (кто, что, тот, кого, чья).

Относительное местоимение может относиться к подлежащему в предложении.

-Это женщина, которая купила машину.

Женщина (субъект) купил свою машину (объект).

Или относительное местоимение может относиться к дополнению в предложении.

-Это автомобиль, который у меня был.

Я (субъект) владел автомобилем (объект).

• Defining clauses give important information which tells us exactly what is being referred to.

-The book which you lent me is really good.

This indicates which book we are talking about. Without the relative clause, it might be difficult to understand the meaning.

• Определяющие предложения дают важную информацию, которая говорит нам, что именно имеется в виду.
-Книга, которую вы предоставили мне действительно хорошо.

Это указывает на ту книгу,о которой мы говорим. Без определяющего предложения, может быть трудно понять смысл.

• Non-defining clauses add extra information. They are separated by commas in writing, and by a pause on either side (where the commas are) in speaking. We generally use which not that in non-defining clauses.

The book, which I hadn’t read, was still on the shelf. This gives extra information about the book.

We could miss out the relative clause and the meaning would still be clear.

• Не определяющие предложения добавляют дополнительную информацию. Они разделены запятой в письменной форме, и паузой с каждой стороны (там, где запятые) в разговоре. Мы вообще используем which а не that в не определяющие предложениях.

Книга, которую я не читал, по-прежнему лежала на полке.

Это дает дополнительную информацию о книге. Мы могли опустить н е определяющее предложение, но смысл все равно будет понятным.

Omitting the relative pronoun

• In a defining relative clause we can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the clause.

— That’s the car (that) I used to own.

We cannot miss out the relative pronoun if it is the subject of the clause.

— That’s the woman who bought my car.

• In a non-defining relative clause we cannot leave out the relative pronoun.

The book, which I hadn’t read, was still on the shelf.

Опуская относительное местоимение

• В о пределяющем предложении мы можем опустить относительное местоимение, если оно является дополнением в предложении.

-Это автомобиль, который у меня был.

Мы не можем опустить относительное местоимение, если оно является подлежащим в предложении.

-Это женщина, которая купила машину.

• В н е определяющих предложениях мы не можем опустить относительное местоимение.

— Книга, которую я не читал, по-прежнему лежала на полке.

Which, who and that

When we talk about things, that is often used instead of which in defining clauses. This is very common in speech.

— Is this the house that you bought?

When we talk about people, that can be used instead of who in defining clauses.

-Have you met the boy that Sue is going to marry?

Which in non-defining clauses

That cannot be used to introduce a non-defining clause.

The hotel, which was a hundred years old, was very comfortable.

That cannot be used after a preposition.

-This is the car (that / which) I paid £2000 for. (speech)

— This is the car for which I paid £2000. (formal)

Который, кто и что

Когда мы говорим о вещах, That часто используются вместо which в определяющем предложении. Это очень распространено в речи.

Это тот дом, который вы купили?

Когда мы говорим о людях, that может быть использовано вместо who в определяющем предложении.

-Вы встретили молодого человека, за которого Сью выходит замуж?
Which в не определяющих предложениях
That не может быть использовано для введения не-определяющего предложения.

Отель, которому было сто лет, был очень удобен.

That не может быть использовано после предлога.

-Это автомобиль (за который) я заплатил £ 2000.

-Это автомобиль ,за которую я заплатил 2000 фунтов стерлингов. (формально)

Whom is generally used in writing.

Smith was one of the men whom Jones had met earlier. (formal)

Smith was one of the men (that / who) Jones had met earlier . (speech)

Whom has to be used after prepositions.

— This is the person (who) I sold my car to. (speech)

— This is the person to whom I sold my car. (formal)

Whose means of whom, and usually refers to people.

— This is Jack. His sister is staying with us.

— This is Jack, whose sister is staying with us.

• Whom , как правило, используется в письменной речи.
Смит был одним из мужчин, с которым Джонс встречался ранее. (формально)

-Смит был одним из мужчин ,(с которым) Джонс встретился ранее. (в речи)

Whom должно быть использовано после предлогов.

-Это человек, (которому) я продал свой автомобиль. (в речи)

Это человек, которому я продал свой автомобиль. (формально)

Whose означает чьё, и ,как правило, относится к людям.

-Это Джек. Его сестра остается с нами.

-Это Джек, чья сестра остается с нами.

Exercise 1: Fill in: who, whose, which or where.

My school, 1) __________ is called King Edward’s, has about 2,000 students. My favourite teacher, 2)__________ is called Mr Brown, teaches sport. The sports centre, 3)____________ I play basketball and tennis, is the largest in the area. I walk to school every day with my friend Mike, 4)____________ father teaches History.

Make sentences as in the example. Use relative pronouns or relative adverbs.

Example: A painter is someone who paints pictures.

• builder / someone / build houses • elephant / animal / ears are big

• circus / place / can see acrobats

• tiger / animal / live in jungle

• supermarket / place / do shopping

Fill in: who’s or whose.

1 My mother,_________ name is Elizabeth, is a piano teacher.

2 She’s the woman ________________married to an actor.

3 Celine is the girl ______________ brother won the prize.

4 Helen is the person______________car is outside our house.

5 Ann’s the one________________ a History teacher.

6 Lucas is the man ______________ helping us move house.

7 That’s the woman _____________ son just graduated from university.

8 . ______________ concert did you go to?

Fill in the correct relative pronoun. What part of sentence is each, subject or object? Write S for subject and О for object, then state if the relatives can be omitted or not in the box provided.

Did you see the man __________ stole her bag?

The dress__________ Mary bought yesterday is too big.

Please give me the keys______

are on the table.

Is that the man______________we saw in the park yesterday?

What’s the name of the lady_____

babysits your little sister?

Klaus is playing with the dog____

lives next door.

Have you eaten all the cakes_____

I made yesterday?

How old is the man___________

Have you met the man_________

Jackie is going to marry?

Let’s all look at the picture______

Has Peter returned the money____

he borrowed from you?

What colour is the dress ______

you’re going to wear tonight?

Write one word for each space.

How are you? I’m doing all right. I just wanted to tell you 1)______________ something exciting 2) ________ happened to me last Saturday. Do you remember Beth, 3) _____________party we went to last winter? Well, I went 4) __________ her and her cousin to a concert at Croke Park 5)___________my favourite band, Nickelback, were playing. Anyway, her cousin Rick knew someone 6) _________ was working backstage and he let us meet the band. He even invited us to a party 7) ______________ the band was going to after the concert. It was amazing! Now about the weekend hiking trip — the reason 8) ______ I can’t come is because my sister has asked me to take care of her children as she’s 9)______________ on a business trip. I ‘m so sorry. I was really 10) _____ forward to it.

Write and tell me your news,

Fill in the appropriate relative, say whether the relative clauses are essential or not to the meaning of the main sentence, then add commas where necessary.

Paul Stevens___________ starred in Days went to school with my brother.

The pen __________ I left on that table has disappeared.

The woman _________ repairs our car is very friendly.

David _________ grew up in Canada speaks French fluently.

The man _______car was stolen has gone to the police station.

Rye_________ my grandmother lives is near the sea.

Oleg_________car has broken down is late for work.

The Coliseum_________attracts many tourists is in Rome.

Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary. Write D for defining, ND for non-defining and if the relative can be omitted or not in the box provided.

teaches us French, comes from London.

I met on the bus looks just like my sister.

had an accident is in hospital.

grow on these trees are delicious.

This lemon pie______

I made yesterday tastes great.

I saw on TV last night was very exciting.

My friend Akim_____

is a doctor works very long hours.

father is a lawyer has moved to Paris.

The sports centre____

we play tennis is expensive.

The vase .__________

Susan gave me got broken.

The summer ______

I went to Spain was really hot.

tyres are flat is mine.

I first met my husband has closed down now.

mother is a vegetarian doesn’t eat meat.

is by my house sells wonderful pies.

a) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Художник, который нарисовал эту картину, жил в 19 веке.

2. Книга, которую ты прочитал летом, действительно очень увлекательная.

3. Катя, чей брат учится в моем классе, выиграла чемпионат мира.

b) Translate the text into English.

Зоопарк — это место, куда люди ходят с самого детства. Животные, которых там можно увидеть, представляют разные страны и континенты. Люди, которые часто посещают зоопарк, даже имеют там своих любимых животных. В некоторых зоопарках животным можно давать специальную еду, которая куплена здесь же. День, когда вся семья идет в зоопарк, обычно очень радостный, особенно для детей.

Exercise 1: 1)which 2)who 3)where 4)whose

1)Builder is someone who/that builds houses

2) A circus is a place where we can see acrobats.

3)A tiger is an animal which/that lives in the jungle.

4)A supermarket is the place where we do the shopping.

5)An elephant is an animal whose ears are big.

1 My mother,_ whose ________ name is Elizabeth, is a piano teacher.

2 She’s the woman ___ who’s_ ____________married to an actor.

3 Celine is the girl __ whose ____________ brother won the prize.

4 Helen is the person___ whose ___________car is outside our house.

5 Ann’s the one___ who’s _____________ a History teacher.

6 Lucas is the man ___ who’s_ __________ helping us move house.

7 That’s the woman __ whose ___________ son just graduated from university.

8 . ___Whose ___concert did you go to?

1) who / that (S- not omitted)

6)which/that (S- not omitted)

16) who / that(S-not omitted)

17) which/that (S- not omitted)

3)which/that (S- not omitted)

8) who / that (S-not omitted)

13) who / that(S-not omitted)

18) who / that (S- not omitted)

4) who(m) / that(O-omitted)

9) who(m) / that(O-omitted)

14) which/that (S- not omitted)

19)which/that (O- omitted)

5) who / that (S-not omitted)

10)which/that (S-not omitted)

15) who / that(S-not omitted)

20) who(m) / that (O-omitted)

1) who (ND-not omitted)

2) who(m) / that (D-omitted)

7),who. (ND-not omitted)

3),who. (ND-not omitted)

8) ,whose. (ND-not omitted)

4) which / that(D-omitted)

14) ,whose. (ND-not omitted)

5) ,which. (ND -not omitted)

10)which/that (S-not omitted)

Translation (suggested answers)

a) 1 ) The artist who painted this picture lived in the 19 th century.

2 ) The book you read in the summer is really very exciting.

3 ) Kate, whose brother studies in my class, has won the world championship.

b) The zoo is a place where people go from their childhood on. Animals which you can see there come from different countries and continents. People who often go to the zoo even have their favourite animals there. In some zoos you can give the animals special food which has been bought there. A day when the whole family goes to the zoo is usually very jolly, especially

1 ) Underline any relative pronouns that can be left out in these sentences.

1 I think that my boss is the person who I admire most.

2 Harry, who was tired, went to bed very early.

3 Were taking the train that leaves at 6.00.

4 Have you seen the book that I left here on the desk?

5 The film which we liked most was the French one.

6 My radio, which isn’t very old, has suddenly stopped working.

7 The clothes which you left behind are at the reception desk.

8 The couple who met me at the station took me out to dinner.

9 Last week I ran into an old friend who I hadn’t seen for ages.

10 Don’t cook the meat

2 )Replace the relative pronouns in italics with that, where possible.

1 This is the magazine which I told you about.

2 John’s flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger.

3 The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.

4 The policeman who arrested her had recognized her car.

5 I work with someone who knows you.

6 We don’t sell goods which have been damaged.

7 Brighton, which is on the south coast, is a popular holiday resort.

8 I don’t know anyone whose clothes would fit you.

9 There’s a cafe near here which serves very good meals.

10 People who park outside get given parking tickets.

3 ) Underline the most suitable word in each sentence.

1 My friend Jack, that I who / whose parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland.

2 Here’s the computer program that / whom / whose I told you about.

3 I don’t believe the story that / who / whom she told us.

4 Peter comes from Witney, that / who / which is near Oxford.

5 This is the gun with that I whom / which the murder was committed.

6 Have you received the parcel whom / whose / which we sent you?

7 Is this the person who I which / whose you asked me about?

8 That’s the girl that I who / whose brother sits next to me at school.

9 The meal, that I which / whose wasn’t very tasty, was quite expensive.

10 We didn’t enjoy the play that / who / whose we went to see

4 ) Put one suitable word in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.

The story so far:

Jane Piatt, (1). . is travelling to London because of a mysterious letter, is the only person (2). witnesses a murder at Victoria Station. The detective to (3). she gives her statement then disappears.Jane goes to an office in Soho to answer the letter 4). she had received. There she discovers that her uncle Gordon, (5).

lives in South America, has sent her a small box (6). she is only to open if in trouble. ) Jane, (7). parents have never mentioned an Uncle Gordon, is suspicious of the box, (8). she gives to her friend Tony. They go to Scotland Yard and see Inspector Groves, (9). has not heard of the Victoria Station murder, (10). was not reported to the police. Jane gives Inspector Groves the murdered man’s ticket, (11). she found beside his body. Then Jane and Tony decide to go to Redhill, (12). was the town (1 3). the murdered man had come from. On the train they meet a man, (14). face is somehow familiar to Jane, (15). says he knows her Uncle Gordon.

5 ) Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.

1 My bike, . I had left at the gate, had disappeared.

2 The shoes. I bought were the ones. I tried on first.

3 The bag in. the robbers put the money was found later.

4 The medicine. the doctor gave me had no effect at all.

5 Peter. couldn’t see the screen, decided to change his seat.

6 I really liked that tea. you made me this morning.

7 What was the name of your friend. tent we borrowed?

8 The flight. Joe was leaving on was cancelled.

1 1 who. 2 none. 3 none. 4 that. 5 which. 6 none. 7 which. 8 none. 9 who. 10 that.

2 1 that I told you about. 2 not possible. 3 not possible. 4 that arrested her. 5 that

knows you. 6 that have been damaged. 7 not possible. 8 not possible. 9 that serves

very good meals. 10 that park outside.

3 1 whose. 2 that. 3 that. 4 which. 5 which. 6 which.7 who. 8 whose. 9 which.10 that.

4 1 who. 2 who. 3 whom. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 which. 7 whose. 8 which. 9 who. 10

which. 11 which. 12 which. 13 blank. 14 whose. 15 who.

5 1 which. 2 blank, blank. 3 which. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 blank. 7 whose. 8 blank.

Differences Between Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses

We learned about adjective or relative clause; we learned that a dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called adjective clause or relative. Indeed the adjective clause is divided into two main kinds: defining relative clause and non-defining relative clause. In this lesson we will learn the differences between defining and non-defining relative clauses.

Differences Between Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses

1. Defining Relative Clause
Defining relative clause gives essential information about the person or thing that we are talking about in the sentence.
Defining relative clause usually comes after the noun it modifies and the following relative pronouns or relative adverbs are used in defining relative clauses. These relative pronouns or adverbs come at the start of relative clause and refer to a noun or that person in the sentence.
List of Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs:
Relative Pronouns: who, whom, which, that and whose.
Relative Adverbs: when, why, and where.

  • Students who have not taken admission are waiting outside.
    (In this sentence we understand that there are many students in the academy, but we are talking about the ones who have not taken admission, and the class is a defining relative clause.)
  • Do you know the man who is standing over there ?
  • He gave me a parcel which you had sent.

Punctuation
Commas are not used to separate defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. Commas or parentheses are used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence.
No relative pronoun
You can omit the relative pronoun when it is the object of the clause, but when it is the subject of the clause it cannot be omitted. Consider the examples below.

  • The teacher (whom) you were talking about is her brother.
  • The teacher who taught the lesson was very intelligent.

2. Non-Defining Relative Clause
Non-Defining relative clause gives essential information about the person or thing that we are talking about in the sentence.
The information is not necessary and we don’t need it to understand who or what is being referred to.
Relative Pronoun
The relative pronouns which are used to introduce non-defining relative clause are: who, whom, whose, which and the relative adverb where.

  • My brother, who lives in the USA , will come coming Friday.
    (In this sentence the information in the non-relative clause is something more about my brother which is not essential information. If the clause is removed from the sentence, the sentence would be still grammatically correct).
  • My friend, who won the last match, is now in the final.
  • The desk in the corner, which is covered with books, is broken.

Punctuation
Commas or parentheses are always used to separate non-defining relative clause from the rest of the sentence.

Differences with the defining relative clause
1. In defining relative clauses, the pronouns who, whom and which are often replaced by that in spoken English. In non-defining relative clauses you cannot replace other pronouns with that.
2. You cannot omit the relative pronoun in non-defining relative clause, even if it is the object of the verb in the relative clause.
3. Eventually, non-defining relative clauses are always separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, unlike defining relative clauses, which have no punctuation.

Defining and non-defining relative clauses

Exercise 2

Choose the correct relative pronoun or adverb for the following defining and non-defining relative clauses.

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Defining vs non-defining – grammar chart

Defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses carry essential information, because they identify which thing or person we are talking about, and they are used without commas.

  • This is the music which was used at the show .
  • Have they found the prisoner who escaped last week ?

We can use that

In defining relative clauses we can use that instead of which or who.

  • This is the music that was used at the show.
  • Have they found the prisoner that escaped last week?

When can we omit who/which/that?

Who/which/that, can be omitted if they are followed by subject + verb

  • Can you pass me the box (which/that) I keep in the top drawer?
  • You are not the man (who/that) I thought you were.

Non-defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses are used between commas, and they add extra information which is not necessary to know who or what we are talking about.

  • This music, which I really like , was used at the show.
  • My sister, who I truly admire , is coming for Thanksgiving.

We cannot use that , and we cannot omit who/which

In non-defining relative clauses (between commas) we cannot use that , and we cannot omit who/which.

  • This music, that I really like, was used at the show.
  • My sister, I truly admire, is coming for Thanksgiving.

Defining vs non-defining relative clauses

In a defining relative clause the information is essential to identify who or what we are talking about, whereas in non-defining relative clauses we just add extra the information, which is not necessary. Compare:

  • My brother who lives in Cardiff is much older than me. (=I have more than one brother and the relative clause helps >who lives in Cardiff , is much older than me. (=I have only one brother, so we don’t need the relative clause to know who I am talking about)

Relative pronouns and adverbs

Here you can see a grammar chart with the relative pronouns and adverbs that we normally use in relative clauses.

Common mistakes

Two subjects

When who, which or that is the subject of a relative clause, we don’t use another pronoun or noun after it, because we can only have one subject (who, which or that).

  • I saw a man who was very tall. (NOT: I saw a man who he was very tall .)
  • That is the painting that was stolen from the gallery. (NOT: That is the painting that it was stolen from the gallery .)

that between commas

We cannot use the relative pronoun that in a non-defining relative clause (between commas)

  • The victim, who suffered a concussion, said he didn’t remember the accident. (NOT, The victim, that suffered a concussion, said he didn’t remember the accident .)

Non-defining relative clauses

How can I say this sentence? With ‘where’ or ‘which’?

The city of Copenhagen, where I have never been to, is the most-visited of all Scandinavian cities

The city of Copenhagen, which I have never been to, is the most-visited of all Scandinavian cities Thank you so much

2 Answers 2

Non-defining relative clauses is the same as nonessential (nonrestrictive) dependent clauses

You want the relative pronoun, which, with its antecedent (the word it stands for) Copenhagen. It introduces the adjective dependent clause and has a purpose in the clause as the object of the preposition in the prepositional phrase «to Copenhagen» in the clause.

The city of Copenhagen is the most-visited of all Scandinavian cities.

which I have never been to = I have never been to which = I have never been to Copenhagen.

CORRECT: The city of Copenhagen, which I have never been to, is the most-visited of all Scandinavian cities.

I know you can use where as a pronoun too, but, in certain situations, of which I have no idea, or did at one time and now have forgotten.

This is from Garner’s Modern American Usage. 2003. 832.

where. In formal prose, where should not be used as a relative pronoun instead of as a locative—thus, not case where but case in which. But if you want a relaxed tone, where may be more suitable. In the following example, the contraction I’ve might not comfortably fit in the same sentence as in which—hence where is justifiable:

«I’ve deliberately chosen an example where this unspeakable cluster did not stand out.» Richard A. Lanham, Revising Prose 29 (1979)

Garner is saying, with this, “In formal prose, where should not be used as a relative pronoun instead of as a locative—thus, not case where but case in which.” In that you shouldn’t place emphasis on location by using where. But. if you want a relaxed tone, use where. At least that’s how I am reading it. Other opinions welcome.

The question would be, Who’s your audience? Tone and attitude are the two biggies in composition as far as your audience is concerned. A college essay? Use which. A tour guide of some kind? Use where. Just my opinion.

«12e. Consider your attitude toward the subject and the tone you want to express.»—John E. Warriner. Warriner’s English Grammar and Composition. Third Course. Liberty Edition. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt, Brace, and Jovanovich. 1986. 342.

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