Mary Cassatt — тема топик по английскому языку

Cassatt, Mary — топик

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Cassatt, Mary

Cassatt, Mary (b. May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pa., U.S.—d. June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, Fr.), American painter and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists.

The daughter of an affluent Pittsburgh businessman, whose French ancestry had endowed him with a passion for that country, she studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and then travelled extensively in Europe, finally settling in Paris in 1874. In that year she had a work accepted at the Salon and in 1877 made the acquaintance of Degas, with whom she was to be on close terms throughout his life. His art and ideas had a considerable influence on her own work; he introduced her to the Impressionists and she participated in the exhibitions of 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886, refusing to do so in 1882 when Degas did not.

She was a great practical support to the movement as a whole, both by providing direct financial help and by promoting the works of Impressionists in the USA, largely through her brother Alexander. By persuading him to buy works by Manet, Monet, Morisot, Renoir, Degas and Pissarro, she made him the first important collector of such works in America. She also advised and encouraged her friends the Havemeyers to build up their important collection of works by Impressionists and other contemporary French artists.

Her own works, on the occasions when they were shown in various mixed exhibitions in the USA, were very favourably received by the critics and contributed not a little to the acceptance of Impressionism there. Despite her admiration for Degas, she was no slavish imitator of his style, retaining her own very personal idiom throughout her career. From him, and other Impressionists, she acquired an interest in the rehabilitation of the pictural qualities of everyday life, inclining towards the domestic and the intimate rather than the social and the urban (Lady at the Teatable, 1885; Metropolitan Museum, New York), with a special emphasis on the mother and child theme in the 1890s (The Bath, 1891; Art Institute of Chicago). She also derived from Degas and others a sense of immediate observation, with an emphasis on gestural significance. Her earlier works were marked by a certain lyrical effulgence and gentle, golden lighting, but by the 1890s, largely as a consequence of the exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris at the beginning of that decade, her draughtsmanship became more emphatic, her colors clearer and more boldly defined. The exhibition also confirmed her predilection for print-making techniques, and her work in this area must count amongst the most impressive of her generation. She lived in France all her life, though her love of her adopted countrymen did not increase with age, and her latter days were clouded with bitterness.

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Cassatt, Mary

Cassatt, Mary (b. May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pa., U.S.—d. June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, Fr.), American painter and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists.

The daughter of an affluent Pittsburgh businessman, whose French ancestry had endowed him with a passion for that country, she studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and then travelled extensively in Europe, finally settling in Paris in 1874. In that year she had a work accepted at the Salon and in 1877 made the acquaintance of Degas, with whom she was to be on close terms throughout his life. His art and ideas had a considerable influence on her own work; he introduced her to the Impressionists and she participated in the exhibitions of 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886, refusing to do so in 1882 when Degas did not.

She was a great practical support to the movement as a whole, both by providing direct financial help and by promoting the works of Impressionists in the USA, largely through her brother Alexander. By persuading him to buy works by Manet, Monet, Morisot, Renoir, Degas and Pissarro, she made him the first important collector of such works in America. She also advised and encouraged her friends the Havemeyers to build up their important collection of works by Impressionists and other contemporary French artists.

Her own works, on the occasions when they were shown in various mixed exhibitions in the USA, were very favourably received by the critics and contributed not a little to the acceptance of Impressionism there. Despite her admiration for Degas, she was no slavish imitator of his style, retaining her own very personal idiom throughout her career. From him, and other Impressionists, she acquired an interest in the rehabilitation of the pictural qualities of everyday life, inclining towards the domestic and the intimate rather than the social and the urban (Lady at the Teatable, 1885; Metropolitan Museum, New York), with a special emphasis on the mother and child theme in the 1890s (The Bath, 1891; Art Institute of Chicago). She also derived from Degas and others a sense of immediate observation, with an emphasis on gestural significance. Her earlier works were marked by a certain lyrical effulgence and gentle, golden lighting, but by the 1890s, largely as a consequence of the exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris at the beginning of that decade, her draughtsmanship became more emphatic, her colors clearer and more boldly defined. The exhibition also confirmed her predilection for print-making techniques, and her work in this area must count amongst the most impressive of her generation. She lived in France all her life, though her love of her adopted countrymen did not increase with age, and her latter days were clouded with bitterness.

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Mary Cassatt

Born on May 22, 1844, Mary Cassatt was one of the very few women who were part of the French Impressionist movement in art, and the only American during the movement’s productive years; she often painted women in ordinary tasks. Her help to Americans collecting Impressionist art helped bring that movement to America.

Biography of Mary Cassatt

Mary Cassatt was born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, in 1845. Mary Cassatt’s family lived in France from 1851 to 1853 and in Germany from 1853 to 1855. When Mary Cassatt’s oldest brother, Robbie, died, the family returned to Philadelphia.

She studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadelphia in 1861 to 1865, which was among the few such schools open to female students. In 1866 Mary Cassatt began European travels, finally living in Paris, France.

In France, she took art lessons and spent her time studying and copying the paintings at the Louvre.

In 1870, Mary Cassatt returned to the United States and her parents’ home. Her painting suffered from a lack of support from her father. Her paintings in a Chicago gallery were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Fortunately, in 1872 she received a commission from the archbishop in Parma to copy some Correggio works, which revived her flagging career. She went to Parma for the job, then after study in Antwerp Cassatt returned to France.

Mary Cassatt joined the Paris Salon, exhibiting with the group in 1872, 1873, and 1874.

She met and began studying with Edgar Degas, with whom she had a close friendship; they apparently did not become lovers. In 1877 Mary Cassatt joined the French Impressionist group and in 1879 began exhibiting with them at the invitation of Degas. Her paintings sold successfully. She herself began collecting the paintings of other French Impressionists, and she helped several friends from America acquire French Impressionist art for their collections. Among those she convinced to collect Impressionists was her brother, Alexander.

Mary Cassatt’s parents and sister joined her in Paris in 1877; Mary had to do the housework when her mother and sister fell ill, and the volume of her painting suffered until her sister’s death in 1882 and her mother’s recovery soon after.

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Mary Cassatt’s most successful work was during the 1880s and 1890s. She moved from impressionism to her own style, significantly influenced by Japanese prints that she saw at an exhibition in 1890. Degas, upon seeings some of Mary Cassatt’s later work, was said to have stated, «I am not willing to admit that a woman can draw that well.»

Her work was frequently characterized by depictions of women in ordinary tasks, and especially with children. Though she never married or had children of her own, she enjoyed visits from her American nieces and nephews.

In 1893, Mary Cassatt submitted a mural design for display at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exhibition in Chicago. The mural was taken down and lost at the end of the fair.

She continued to care for her ill mother until her mother’s death in 1895.

After the 1890s, she did not keep up with some of the newer, more popular trends, and her popularity waned. She put more of her efforts into advising American collectors, including her brothers. Her brother Gardner died suddenly after Mary Cassatt returned with him and his family from 1910 trip to Egypt. Her diabetes began to create more serious health problems.

Mary Cassatt supported the women’s suffrage movement, both morally and financially.

By 1912, Mary Cassatt had become partially blind. She gave up painting entirely in 1915, and had become totally blind by her death on June 14, 1926, in Mesnil-Beaufresne, France.

Mary Cassatt was close to several female painters including Berthe Morisot. In 1904, the French government awarded Mary Cassatt the Legion of Honor.

Биография Мэри Кассат на английском языке. Biography of Mary Cassatt

Mary Cassatt is the most popular women artist in the USA. She was born in 1845 in a town near Pittsburgh. She began her career at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where she studied from 1861 until 1864. She studied in Paris, too.

Mary Cassatt began her career as a realistic painter. Later she started experimenting with light and colour. In 1877 Degas invited her to join the Impressionists. Mary Cassatt was the only American who exhibited with the French Impressionists. Cassatt took part in four of their exhibitions.

There was something of Manet and Renoir in her works, but she developed her own style. It shows influence of Japanese art.

Cassatt never marries, never had children. But she expressed in her work a profound understanding of the mother and child relations. Womanhood and motherhood were her favourite subjects. Her treatment of these themes was characterized by tenderness. Yet her pictures are objective, direct and free from sentimentality. She sees children as individuals. Her famous canvas «Susan comforting the baby» shows a baby with a personality of her own.

Mary Cassatt’s achievements are great, if we think of the difficulties faced by women artists at the time. Edgar Degas wrote about her: «I am not willing to admit that a woman can draw that well».

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