London Museums and Art Galleries — тема топик по английскому

Museums and art centres in Great Britain / Музеи и художественные центры в Великобритании

There are museums and art galleries in most cities. The museums and art galleries of Great Britain contain collections of artistic, archaeological, scientific, historical and general interest. The biggest museums are in London. The most famous of them are the British Museum, the Science Museum, the National Gallery, the Geological Museum and others.

The British Museum is one of the biggest in the world. It is more than a hundred years old. The library of the museum is also very big. The library has the right to have one copy of every publication, which is printed in Great Britain. There is a manuscript room in the library. Here you can see the Magna Charta and other important documents.

The National Gallery has works by Rubens, Goya, Leonardo da Vinci and other famous painters. There are more than 30 rooms in the gallery, and if you want you may even visit a lecture given by experts. The Science Museum has national collections of science, industry and medicine. There are many historic objects and some working models. Of great interest are also the Geological Museum, the National Maritime Museum, the London Museum and many others.

There are also many interesting museums in other cities and towns in Great Britain. For example, Oxford and Cambridge are rich in museums. The Ashmolean Museum m Oxford is the oldest in the world. It was built in 1683. Museums and art galleries in Great Britain are especially popular among tourist. They want to know more about the history of the country they visit.

London Museums and Galleries. Топик по английскому

Тема: Лондонские музеи и галереи

London is a cultural capital of Great Britain. It is famous for its museums and galleries. There are a lot of museums and galleries in the city, which attract a lot of tourists.

The British Museum is the oldest museum and attracts millions of visitors each year. It was founded in 1753 by an act of the Parliament. The enormous collection includes treasures from the Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilizations through to medieval European art and Japanese and Asian antiquities. Highlights include the Rosetta Stone (dates from 195 BC and is the key to understand ancient Egyptian picture writings and the hieroglyphs), the Egyptian mummies, sculptures from the Greek Pantheon in Athens, and Sutton Hoo treasure (comes from the burial site of 7th-century Anglo-Saxon King in Suffolk). In 1857 the famous domed Reading Room was built.

The Natural History Museum has a fine collection of dinosaurs, birds, mammals and plant life, as well as geology and ecology displays. It is divided into five departments covering botany, entomology, mineralogy, palaeontology and zoology. It was opened in 1881. Its research and educational departments continue to make a vital contribution to the world’s store on information about our planet and its inhabitants.

The Science Museum has five floors packed with imaginative displays about science and technology from the Industrial Revolution through to space exploration, and even the digital age in the Wing, opened in 2000.

The Museum of London at the Barbican takes a look at the fascinating history of the city and its people from prehistoric times to the present day. It is the largest and the most comprehensive city museum in the world. There is also a research library containing a vast amount of material relating to London. The museum has a lively and original outlook — quite the opposite of the popular idea of a museum as a stuffy, boring place. It is a unique museum.

At the London Transport Museum trams, buses and even underground trains are among the colourful displays. It displays London’s first horse-drawn omnibus of 1829 and a locomotive used on the Circle Line in 1866. The Museum houses the old Flower Market.

In the National Army Museum you’ll discover the compelling story of the British soldier in peace and in war through five centuries, from Tudor times to the present day. It shows its visitors how soldiers lived, worked and fought. The treasures on display include medals, paintings, weapons and items from one of the world’s finest collections of military costume.

The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich was opened in 1937. The museum displays cover naval history from Tudor times to the present day. There is a large collection of navigation instruments there. Two outposts of the museum should not be missed: the first will be seen at once by all visitors arriving by boat: the Cutty Sark, the last sailing clipper to be built, launched in 1869. Behind the museum, in Greenwich Park you can see the Old Royal Observatory, erected by Christopher Wren in 1675—76. The observatory moved out after World War II, but this is still the position of the zero meridian of longitude, marked on the cobbled yard.

The National Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green displays over 4,000 toys past and present, from historic folk toys to Robots and Barbie. It is one of the largest collections on public view in the world. But it’s more than just a toy museum — you will also discover many fine examples of children’s books, costumes and nursery furniture.

The Museum of Moving Image explores the magical story of cinema, television and video, from its early beginnings in 2,000 BC with shadow plays to the latest developments in TV technology. Visitors can also experience the wonderful interactive exhibits — they can read the news, fly over London «like Superman», make their own cartoon. Popular with children of all ages the museum was voted by its visitors as their best-liked London attraction.

The Victoria and Albert Museum (V & A) is a national museum of fine and applied art, and covers all countries, periods and styles. Its collection includes sculpture, fashion and textiles, paintings, silver, glass, ceramics, jewellery, books prints and photographs from Britain and all over the world.

The National Gallery and the Tate Gallery are two big London art galleries. They have some very famous pictures in them. You can see the history of British art in the Tate Gallery besides the Thames. It was opened in 1897 and was named after the sugar millionaire Sir Henry Tate who gave the Victorian paintings and paid for the building. The National Gallery, overlooking Trafalgar Square, has over 2,000 paintings in its collection covering more than 700 years of art. The pictures belong to the public and access to them is free. It has been since the Gallery was founded in 1824. Famous names in British history and culture from Tudor times to the 21st century are represented at the National Portrait Gallery.

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One of the top London’s attractions are Madame Tussaud’s and the London Planetarium. The famous exhibition of waxworks was established in Paris in 1770 by Marie Tussaud, who later made her name with models of victims of the guillotine. She moved to London in 1802. This museum consists of several halls with wax images of outstanding political characters, poets and writers, world- famous film stars and musicians.

You can see a lot of other museums in London, and besides there is a show or a new exhibition every week in London. People like different things, and London has exhibitions of cars, boats, books, pictures, food, clothes, bicycles and what not. The saying «When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life» means that you can’t be bored in London.

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The Role Of Museums And Galleries In The Artworld

Art Galleries and Museums play an important role within the artworld. The artworld can be related to exhibitions, museums, critics, historians, artists, the public, audiences, patrons and collectors. The museum is important as an institution of power, a place of contemplation, entertainment, education and conservation. The museum also acts as an agent of social change and also as a representative of the artists. The establishment of the academy and salons as museums and institutions helped to maintain cultural traditions. The armory show and artists such as Stieglitz act, among others, as agents of social change.

Museums or institutions are of a fundamental importance for educational purposes as well as for providing a place of entertainment and contemplation for audiences. Museums and Galleries function most significantly as places of power and contemplation. Throughout the 18 th century, to possess art was seen as a symbol of power and authority. During the French Revolution, however, the private collections’ of wealthy French aristocrats were seized. This meant that that power was then transferred from rulers to the people. The power maintained by galleries and museums can be seen as a result of its legitimation of history and aesthetics.

In regards to the museums as a place of contemplation, as an audience, we are conditioned to be reflective and thus view exhibitions, almost as though a religious experience. Society has been socially conditioned by museums to behave in a contemplative and reflective manner when viewing objects in museums and galleries. As a result of their power and authority, the behaviour expected for a church is not dissimilar to that of an art gallery or museum, which is reflective, contemplative and reverent. The academy is well known as a form of museum / institution and a place of cultural consciousness or a keeper of culture. The academy is a panel of judges who decides which works should be entered into the salon. The Academy tended to prefer paintings that were tradition in style and content and looked to the art of the past as a guideline, rejecting anything that was different or innovative.

The Essay on Claude Monet at the National Gallery of Art

. s was at the National Gallery of art. This one small gallery in a huge museum has drawn me repeatedly . the bottom to the top. Copyright ?2000 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. This is not realism; . but it will do. Copyright ?2000 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. The true brilliance of the . only clearly painted object is the bridge yet the power of the painting is in everything else. The .

As evident, the academy held strict rules and guidelines which were followed for over two hundred years. Up until the late 19 th century, William Bouguereau, artist of “Virgin and child” (1988), believed in and created works which met the criteria necessary for the academy. Bougeuerau voiced his opposition to “new art” through press releases such as this: ” Today people want to get there too quickly, new forms of aesthetics are invented haphazardly, pointillism, piddle ism!” The academy had a very powerful influence on teaching methods, style and choice of subject matter in the art world throughout the 19 th century, where they maintained cultural traditions. Museums or galleries such as the salon and the first impressionist exhibition, acted as agents for social change. During the late 19 th century artists such as Manet featured in the salon of the refused. The Salon of the Refused, was a gallery which exhibited contemporary works which did not meet the criteria necessary to gain entrance into the academy.

Manet’s work “luncheon on the grass” was a very controversial work which gained great criticism from its audience and distaste from critics, such as those of the academy. The work contained a naked women, lunching with two clothed men and looking directly at the viewer. The first impressionism exhibition opened in 1874 and gained much media and public attention. With artists such as Picasso and Delacroix, the gallery created a riot in the art world. The gallery exhibited new works of individualism and were a complete rejection of the works and styles present in the gallery. The salon of the Refused and the first Impressionist exhibition acted as agents for social change as they displayed works which differed in style to that of traditional art, and therefore reflected the changes in society at this time.

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The Essay on The Austin Museum of Art

. contained works from various . art of the 1980s and 90s. After attending the Austin Museum of Art, the students headed for a smaller, more informal gallery. The Dumont Gallery . The Austin Museum of Art was the first of the three galleries attended. At the time, the museum had a touring .

The Armory show had a profound impact on Americans when it was first established in the 1880 s and became a significant agent of social change. The art, displayed and exhibited throughout America was like nothing seen before, thus creating curiosity among society. This art was used to influence the public attitudes and values. As opposed to traditional art collections, the armory show was a collector of reactive works and therefore platforms for social change. By the time the armory show had reached Boston, over 400, 000 Americans had seen the show and the media coverage was astonishing. There were a significantly large and growing number of museums and galleries which displayed “new and reactive works.” These included, the salon des refuses, the first impressionist exhibition, “blockbuster” exhibitions, post impressionist exhibitions and the armory show.

Art in this context is used to influence the publics attitudes and values, and Museums are institutions that are able to change society’s beliefs, due to their power and authority. Museum and galleries are fundamental importance in their provision of entertainment and education for its audiences. Museums were originally established to show artifacts that otherwise would have been privately owned, however, in more contemporary times, they are meant as places of study and of display. In regards to education, the academy had a set of strict rules and guidelines for over 200 years which heavily influenced the artworks created during this era.

In regards to entertainment, the armory show gained an audience of 70, 000 in New York alone, and by the time it had reached Boston, had been viewed by over 400, 000 Americans. The reason why this show gained such a large audience, was because of its individual characteristics, being nothing else like it and therefore creating great curiosity among society. Between 75% and 95% of all visitors to the museum are accompanied by friends proving its function as a form of entertainment. The Armory show was an icon and form of entertainment because of its unusual and bizarre nature. By placing a certain construction on history of the past or more recently, on our own culture and other cultures, museums and galleries are responsible for educating and entertaining all those that attend.

The Term Paper on London Art Galleries

. Some world famous art galleries are situated in London. Among them we should first mention the National Gallery housing the national . generally regarded as the world greatest decorative arts museum. The foundation of the museum dates back to 1852, when the British . Gallery is named after the sugar tycoon Sir Henry Tate, who donated his private art collection to the nation in 1889. The museum .

In conclusion, Museums and galleries play a significant role in society. Not only do they provide a place of education and entertainment, but they act as agents of social change. Towards the end of the 19 th century, there was an evident growth in the number of museums and galleries that displayed works, which were individual and contradictory to the academy guidelines. The armory show was extremely controversial and popular at the time as were many other exhibitions, which were new and individual in its characteristics. Museums and galleries also act as a venue of power, contemplation and therefore are able to easily influence society. Museums and galleries are important in their actions of maintaining cultural traditions and representing changes in society throughout time.

Internet Sites: o web > o web > o web > o web > o web > o Books: o Gardner, Art through the Ages, tenth edition. CD-Rom: o Microsoft Encarta. Class Notes / references : o Art reader: J. E Vaughan, Defining the museum as a cultural concept. o Visual arts reader Term One, case study number 3: Framing the Museum.

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Музеи, галереи и библиотеки в Великобритании

Museums, Galleries and Libraries in the UK

The Great Britain keeps historical relics of state and global significance in its museums, galleries and libraries. A huge number of cultural organizations of various subjects are concentrated on the territory of the country.

If you consider that you belong to the circle of connoisseurs of arts and sciences, before visiting the United Kingdom prepare a route in advance in order to have enough time for visiting all the attractive tourist places of the country. What touristic points should be included in your route?

The British Museum in London is the pearl of the world’s cultural heritage. This museum presents the amazing exhibits: from the artifacts of ancient Rome and Egypt to objects from Medieval Europe.

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The free interactive Science Museum was founded in 1857 in the capital of Great Britain. The five-story building of the museum is divided into thematic departments (astronomy, medicine, industrial technologies, etc.), there are more than 40,000 exhibits.

The British Library was previously a part of the British Museum, but in 1972 all priceless copies and many other books of the country’s largest library were moved to another building. In the 20th century the collection of the library was replenished with Tibetan manuscripts, the Sinai code of the Bible. On weekdays in the halls, lectures and screenings of films for visitors are held.

If you are limited in time while traveling in the United Kingdom, among the numerous galleries you should choose the National Gallery, where about 2,000 paintings are presented, including the canvases of the great artists Leonardo Da Vinci, Titian, Rubens, Botticelli and Rembrandt.

In addition to the world-famous galleries, museums and libraries, it is worth looking into more modest but equally interesting tourist sites: Madame Tussauds Museum, Teddy Bear Museum, Shakespeare House Museum, Glasgow Art Gallery, Ulster Science Museum.
Перевод

Великобритания хранит в своих музеях, галереях и библиотеках исторические реликвии государственного и мирового значения. На территории страны сосредоточено огромное количество культурных организаций разнообразной тематики.

Если вы относите себя к кругу ценителей наук и искусств, перед посещением Соединенного Королевства подготовьте заранее маршрут, чтобы успеть посетить все привлекательные туристические места страны. Какие пункты необходимо обязательно включить в свой маршрут?

Британский музей в Лондоне – жемчужина культурного наследия мира. В этом музее выставлены удивительные экспонаты: от артефактов Древнего Рима и Египта до предметов из Средневековой Европы.

Бесплатный интерактивный Музей науки был основан в 1857 году в столице Великобритании. Пятиэтажное здание музея разделено на тематические отделы (астрономия, медицина, промышленные технологии и др.), здесь собрано более 40 000 экспонатов.

Британская библиотека ранее была частью Британского музея, но в 1972 году все бесценные экземпляры и множество других книг крупнейшей в стране библиотеки были перенесены в другое здание. В 20 веке коллекция библиотека пополнилась тибетскими манускриптами, Синайским кодексом Библии. По будням в залах проводят лекции и показы кинофильмов для посетителей.

Если во время путешествия по Соединенному Королевству вы ограничены во времени, среди многочисленных галерей следует выбрать Национальную галерею, где представлено около 2 000 картин, включая полотна великих художников Леонардо Да Винчи, Тициана, Рубенса, Боттичелли и Рембрандта.

Кроме известных во всем мире галерей, музеев и библиотек, стоит заглянуть в более скромные, но не менее интересные туристические места: Музей Мадам Тюссо, Музей плюшевых мишек, Дом-музей Шекспира, художественную галерею в Глазго, научный Музей Ольстера.

Топик по английскому «Лондон и его достопримечательности» (London and its attractions)

The capital of Great Britain is full of popular and world-famous tourist attractions, both educational and entertaining. Most of them are located close to the river Thames, others are in different parts of London and in its suburbs. The city was founded about 2 000 years ago, so there are a lot of interesting historic and architectural sights.

Big Ben is the most famous iconic clock tower of the Houses of Parliament. Behind this long and beautiful building stands medieval Westminster Abbey where many historic weddings, coronations and burials took place. The Tower of London has rich history as a royal palace, a fortress, a prison and a place of execution. Not far from the Tower guests can see the magnificent architecture of St Paul’s Cathedral, originally designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In the middle of Trafalgar Square tourists stop to admire a 52-metre Nelson’s column dedicated to Admiral Lord Nelson. Buckingham Palace has been the official residence of British monarchs since the reign of Queen Victoria.

London is famous for its wonderful museums and art galleries. In British Museum one can see ancient paintings, sculptures and even Egyptian mummies. London’s National Gallery has the greatest collection of paintings of Van Gogh, Leonardo da Vinci, Renoir and many others. The Natural History Museum boasts its fabulous dinosaur exhibition. Tate Modern is a unique museum with the works of Picasso, Dali and other modern artists. The Science Museum is a technology thought-provoking museum with interactive galleries devoted to many fields of science: from space travel to psychology.

As for the entertaining, it is impossible to get bored in London. The best places for quiet relaxation are traditional English parks and gardens. The tourists’ favorites are Kew Gardens, Hyde Park, St. James’s Park, Green Park and Kensington Gardens. Right in the heart of the capital we can find London Zoo and London Aquarium. In Madame Tussauds Museum visitors will meet face to face with hundreds of celebrities: from Shakespeare to Lady Gaga because it’s an amazing collection of wax figures. Warner Bros. Studio Tour is an unbelievable behind-the-scenes tour where we can enjoy the magic of the Harry Potter films. The London Eye is a giant wheel that carries its visitors in one of its capsules for breathtaking experience above the city and its attractions.

Перевод

Столица Великобритании полна популярных и всемирно известных туристических достопримечательностей, как образовательных, так и развлекательных. Большая часть из них находится у реки Темза, другие – в разных частях Лондона и его окрестностях. Город был основан около 2000 лет назад, поэтому здесь много интересных исторических и архитектурных мест.

Биг Бен является самой известной культовой часовой башней в Здании Парламента. Позади этого длинного и красивого здания стоит средневековое Вестминстерское Аббатство, где состоялось много исторически важных бракосочетаний, коронаций и захоронений. Лондонский Тауэр имеет богатую историю как королевский дворец, крепость, тюрьма и место казни. Недалеко от Тауэра гости могут увидеть великолепную архитектуру Собора Св. Павла, первоначально спроектированного сэром Кристофером Реном. В центре Трафальгарской площади туристы останавливаются, восторгаясь 52-метровой колонной Нельсона, посвященной адмиралу Нельсону. Букингемский дворец является официальной резиденцией британских монархов со времен правления королевы Виктории.

Лондон знаменит своими прекрасными музеями и художественными галереями. В Британском музее можно увидеть старинные картины, скульптуры и даже египетские мумии. В Национальной галерее Лондона находится величайшая коллекция полотен Ван Гога, Леонардо да Винчи, Ренуара и других. Музей естествознания гордится своей восхитительной выставкой динозавров. Тэйт Модерн – это уникальный музей с работами Пикассо, Дали и других современных художников. Музей науки – это прикладной, заставляющий думать музей с интерактивными галереями, посвященный многим областям науки: от космических полетов до психологии.

Что касается развлечений, то в Лондоне невозможно скучать. Лучшими местами для спокойного отдыха считаются традиционные английские парки и сады. Фаворитами среди туристов стали Кью Гарденз, Гайд Парк, Парк Св. Джеймса, Грин Парк и Кенсингтонские сады. Прямо в сердце столицы можно найти Лондонский зоопарк и Аквариум. В Музее мадам Тюссо посетители встречаются лицом к лицу с сотнями знаменитостей: от Шекспира до Леди Гага, потому что это удивительная коллекция восковых фигур. Тур на студию Уорнер Бразерс – это невероятная экскурсия об истории создания волшебных фильмов о Гарри Поттере. Лондонский Глаз – это гигантское колесо обозрения, которое поднимает посетителей в одной из своих капсул в захватывающее приключение над городом и его достопримечательностями.

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