Lomonosov — Ломоносов — тема топик по английскому языку


Mikhail Lomonosov was born in 1711 in the family of a fisherman in the northern coastal village of Denisovka not far from Arkhangelsk. When he was ten years of age his father began to take him sea fishing. That dangerous life taught the precocious youngster to observe the phe­nomena of nature more closely. During the long winter nights the boy studied his letters, grammar and arithmetic diligently.

Since he was the son of a peasant, he was refused admission to the town school, so he walked to Moscow. By concealing his peasant origin he gained admission to the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy and for five years lived from hand to mouth on 3 kopecks a day. The noblemen’s sons studying with him made fun of the twenty-year-old giant, who despite their jeers and his own desperate poverty, made rapid progress.

After 5 years came the chance of entering the Acade­my of Sciences as there weren’t enough noble-born students to fill the quota. His ability and diligence attracted the attention of the professors, and as one of the best students he was sent abroad. He spent all the time there in delving into the work of leading European scientists studying chemistry, metallurgy, mining and mathemat­ics. On his return to Russia in 1745 he was made a professor and the first Russian scientist to become a member of the Academy of Sciences.

For versatility Lomonosov has no equal in Russian and world science. Many of his ideas and discoveries won recognition only in the XIXth century. He was the first to discover the vegetable origin of coal, for instance, and as a poet and scientist he played an eminent role in the formation of the Russian literary language, eliminating distortions and unnecessary foreign borrowings. He had a great thirst for knowledge. The great son of the Russian people Mikhail Lomonosov died in 1765. His living memorial is the Moscow University which he founded in 1755. How he would have appreciated the gigantic building which stands on the hills where Napoleon stood in 1812 to watch Moscow bum.

phenomenon (pl. phenomena ) — явление, феномен

diligently — прилежно, старательно

to gain admission — добиться принятия

to live from hand to mouth — с трудом перебиваться; кое-как сводить концы с концами

the noblemen’s sons — дети знати

desperate poverty — отчаянная бедность

to delve — рыться (в книгах и т.п.)

mining — горное дело

the Academy of Sciences — Академия наук

eliminating distortions and unnecessary foreign borrowings — исключив искажения и ненужные иностранные заимствования

to found — закладывать (фундамент), основывать; создавать

Английский (топики / темы): Mikhail Lomonosov — Михаил Ломоносов

Mikhail Lomonosov was born in 1711 in Archangelsk province. His father was a fisher and young Mikhail liked to help him. He always strove for knowledge and liked reading books.

As he was 19 years old, he decided to study in Moscow. He went there on foot. In Moscow he entered the Slavic- Greek-Latin Academy. After his graduation from Academy he was sent abroad to complete his knowledge in chemistry and mining. After he had returned from abroad, he became the first Russian professor of chemistry in 1745.

At first he was engaged in research in physics and chemistry. Since 1748 he had conducted works in the first Russian chemical research laboratory, which was built at his request.

Since 1753 he was engaged in research in many fields of natural and applied sciences. He wrote works on physics, astronomy, geography, history. Besides scientific works, he wrote poems as well. He is the author of the first scientifical grammar of the Russian language.

He founded the factory producing colored glass. He created some mosaics using the glass produced at the factory.

Lomonosov was the founder of the first Russian university. This university is situated in Moscow and still carries his name.

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Mikhail Lomonosov died in 1765. But he is still known as the father of the Russian science, an outstanding poet, the founder of Russian literature.

Михаил Ломоносов родился в 1711 году в Архангельской губернии. Его отец был рыбаком, и юный Михаил любил помогать ему. Он всегда стремился к знаниям и любил читать книги.

Когда ему было 19 лет, он решил учиться в Москве. Он пошел туда пешком. В Москве он поступил в Славяно-греко-латинскую академию. После окончания академии он был направлен за границу, чтобы усовершенствовать свои знания по химии и горному делу. После того, как он вернулся из-за границы, он стал первым русским профессором химии в 1745 году.

Сначала он занимался исследованиями в области физики и химии. С 1748 года он проводил работы в первой русской химической исследовательской лаборатории, которая была построена по его просьбе.

С 1753 года он проводил исследования во многих областях естественных и прикладных наук. Он писал труды по физике, астрономии, географии, истории. Кроме научных трудов, он писал также стихотворения. Он — автор первой научной грамматики русского языка.

Он основал фабрику по производству цветного стекла. Он создал несколько мозаик, используя стекло, произведенное на этой фабрике.

Ломоносов был основателем первого русского университета. Этот университет находится в Москве и носит его имя.

Михаил Ломоносов умер в 1765 году. Но он все еще известен как отец русской науки, выдающийся поэт, основоположник русской литературы.

1. When was Lomonosov born?
2. Where did he study?
3. In what fields of science did he write works?
4. What did he write besides scientific works?
5. What university is named after his name?
6. When did he die?


province — губерния
to strive for — стремиться к
Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy — Славяне-греко-латинская академия
chemistry — химия
mining — горное дело
to be engaged in research — заниматься исследованиями
natural sciences — естественные науки
applied sciences — прикладные науки
founder — основоположник

База знаний студента. Реферат, курсовая, контрольная, диплом на заказ

Lomonosov — Иностранный язык

Mike Lomonosov is the father of the Russian sciences and outstanding poet the founder of Russian literature.

M.L. was born in 1711 in Arhangelsk province. He liked to spend his time fishing with his father. He began to read him self then he was a little boy. He wanted to study and then he was 19 he went on foot to Moscow.

He decided to enter the Slavic-Greek-Lateen academy. He entered it and six ears later in 1736 he was sent abroad to complete his studies in chemistry and mining. L worked hard and he became a great scientist.

He was a physicist a painter and astronomer, a geographer a historian and a states man. M.L. made a telescope; he observed a lot of stars and planets with his telescope.

L wrote a first scientific grammar of Russian language. He wrote many poems. L build a factory near Petersburg. It was a factory there glass was produced. He made a portrait of Peter the first of pieces of glass.

L was a founder of the first Russian University. This University is named after L and it is situated in Moscow. M.L was died in 1765 but people know and remember him.

Mikhail Lomonosov Biography

Mikhail Lomonosov was a Russian scientist, poet, geologist and astronomer. Check out this biography to know about his childhood, life, achievements, works & timeline.

Born in: Lomonossowo, Russia

Famous as: Scientist, Poet, Geologist, Astronomer

Spouse/Ex-: Elisabeth Zilch (m. 1740)

children: Yelena Lomonosova

discoveries/inventions: Coaxial Rotors

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Mikhail Lomonosov was a Russian scientist, poet, geologist and astronomer, who is also believed to have influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language. His expertise in diverse fields earned him the title of becoming the first scientist-naturalist from Russia to have gained international acclaim. Born into a family of peasants, he was urged to pursue the family business from a young age; however, his passion to study led him to Moscow, Kiev and later to Germany. Upon his return to Russia, he began his teaching career at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Alongside he made several independent discoveries like the determination of freezing temperature of mercury, definition of the law of mass conservation, atmosphere around planet Venus, explanation of the phenomenon of icebergs and understanding gravity from a mechanical perspective. He was an advocate of progress in domestic education and was responsible for the establishment of the first Russian chemical laboratory at St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He also co-founded the Moscow University. A linguistic reformer, he was known to have set the foundation for Russian literature. Other than writing poems and books, he also composed plays that were well appreciated. He was elected as Secretary of State in 1764; however, he could serve in the position only for a year.

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Lomonosov, in full Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov, (born November 19 [November 8, Old Style], 1711, near Kholmogory, Russia—died April 15 [April 4], 1765, St. Petersburg), Russian poet, scientist, and grammarian who is often considered the first great Russian linguistics reformer. He also made substantial contributions to the natural sciences, reorganized the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences, established in Moscow the university that today bears his name, and created the first coloured glass mosaics in Russia.

Lomonosov was the son of a poor fisherman. At the age of 10 he too took up that line of work. When the few books he was able to obtain could no longer satisfy his growing thirst for knowledge, in December 1730, he left his native village, penniless and on foot, for Moscow. His ambition was to educate himself to join the learned men on whom the tsar Peter I the Great was calling to transform Russia into a modern nation.

The clergy and the nobility, attached to their privileges and fearing the spread of education and science, actively opposed the reforms of which Lomonosov was a lifelong champion. His bitter struggle began as soon as he arrived in Moscow. In order to be admitted to the Slavonic–Greek–Latin Academy, he had to conceal his humble origin; the sons of nobles jeered at him, and he had scarcely enough money for food and clothes. But his robust health and exceptional intelligence enabled him in five years to assimilate the eight-year course of study; during this time he taught himself Greek and read the philosophical works of antiquity.

Noticed at last by his instructors, in January 1736 Lomonosov became a student at the St. Petersburg Academy. Seven months later he left for Germany to study at the University of Marburg, where he led the turbulent life of the German student. His work did not suffer, however, for within three years he had surveyed the main achievements of Western philosophy and science. His mind, freed from all preconception, rebelled at the narrowness of the empiricism in which the disciples of Isaac Newton had bound the natural sciences; in dissertations sent to St. Petersburg, he attacked the problem of the structure of matter.

In 1739, in Freiberg, Lomonosov studied firsthand the technologies of mining, metallurgy, and glassmaking. Also friendly with the poets of the time, he freely indulged the love of verse that had arisen during his childhood with the reading of Psalms. The “Ode,” dedicated to the empress, and the Pismo o pravilakh rossiyskogo stikhotvorstva (“Letter Concerning the Rules of Russian Versification”) made a considerable impression at court.

After breaking with one of his masters, the chemist Johann Henckel, and many other mishaps, among which his marriage at Marburg must be included, Lomonosov returned in July 1741 to St. Petersburg. The Academy, which was directed by foreigners and incompetent nobles, gave the young scholar no precise assignment, and the injustice aroused him. His violent temper and great strength sometimes led him to go beyond the rules of propriety, and in May 1743 he was placed under arrest. Two odes sent to the empress Elizabeth won him his liberation in January 1744, as well as a certain poetic prestige at the Academy.

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While in prison he worked out the plan of work that he had already developed in Marburg. The 276 zametok po fizike i korpuskulyarnoy filosofi (“276 Notes on Corpuscular Philosophy and Physics”) set forth the dominant > Leonhard Euler, recognized the creative originality of his articles, which were, on Euler’s advice, published by the Russian Academy in the Novye kommentari.

In 1748 the laboratory that Lomonosov had been requesting since 1745 was granted him; it then began a prodigious amount of activity. He passionately undertook many tasks and, courageously facing ill will and hostility, recorded in three years more than 4,000 experiments in his Zhurnal laboratori, the results of which enabled him to set up a coloured glass works and to make mosaics with these glasses. Slovo o polze khimi (1751; “Discourse on the Usefulness of Chemistry”), the Pismo k I.I. Shuvalovu o polze stekla (1752; “Letter to I.I. Shuvalov Concerning the Usefulness of Glass”), and the “Ode” to Elizabeth celebrated his fruitful union of abstract and applied science. Anxious to train students, he wrote in 1752 an introduction to the physical chemistry course that he was to set up in his laboratory. The theories on the unity of natural phenomena and the structure of matter that he set forth in the discussion on the Slovo o proiskhozhdeni sveta (1756; “Origin of Light and Colours”) and in his theoretical works on electricity in 1753 and 1756 also matured in this laboratory.

Encouraged by the success of his experiments in 1760, Lomonosov inserted in the Meditationes de Solido et Fluido (“Reflections on the Solidity and Fluidity of Bodies”) the “universal law of nature”—that is, the law of conservation of matter and energy, which, with the corpuscular theory, constitutes the dominant thread in all his research.

To these achievements were added the composition of Rossiyskaya grammatika and of Kratkoy rossiyskoy letopisets (“Short Russian Chronicle”), ordered by the empress, and all the work of reorganizing education, to which Lomonosov accorded much importance.

From 1755 he followed very closely the development of Moscow State University (now Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University), for which he had drawn up the plans. Appointed a councillor by the Academy in 1757, he undertook reforms to make the university an intellectual centre closely linked with the life of the country. To that end, he wrote several scholarly works including Rassuzhdeniye o bolshoy tochnosti morskogo puti (1759; “Discussion of the Great Accuracy of the Maritime Route”); Rassuzhdeniye o proiskhozhdenii ledyanykh gor v severnykh moryakh (1760; “Discussion of the Formation of Icebergs in the Northern Seas”); Kratkoye opisaniye raznykh puteshestviy po severnym moryam… (1762–63; “A Short Account of the Various Voyages in the Northern Seas”); and O sloyakh zemnykh (1763; “Of the Terrestrial Strata”), which constituted an important contribution both to science and to the development of commerce and the exploitation of mineral wealth.

Despite the honours that came to him, he continued to lead a simple and industrious life, surrounded by his family and a few friends. He left his house and the laboratory erected in his garden only to go to the Academy. His prestige was considerable in Russia, and his scientific works and his role in the Academy were known abroad. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and of that of Bologna. His theories concerning heat and the constitution of matter were opposed by the empiricist scientists of Germany, although they were analyzed with interest in European scientific journals.

The persecutions he suffered, particularly after the empress Elizabeth’s death in 1762 (1761, Old Style) exhausted him physically, and he died in 1765. The empress Catherine II the Great had the patriotic scholar buried with great ceremony, but she confiscated all the notes in which were outlined the great humanitarian > Polnoye sobraniye sochineny (“Complete Works”) in 1950–83 by Soviet scholars has revealed the full contributions of Lomonosov, who has long been misunderstood by historians of science.

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