Higher Education in the USA — тема топик по английскому

Education in the USA – Образование в США

�� Play The American system of school education differs from the systems in other countries. Американская система школьного образования отличается от систем других стран.

�� Play There are state public schools, private elementary schools and private secondary schools. Есть государственные общественные школы, частные начальные школы и частные средние школы.

�� Play Public schools are free and private schools are feepaying. Государственные школы являются бесплатными, а частные школы – платные.

�� Play Each state has its own system of public schools. Каждый штат имеет свою собственную систему общественных школ.

�� Play Elementary education begins at the age of six or seven, when a child goes to the first grade (form). Начальное образование начинается в возрасте шести или семи лет, когда ребенок идет в первый класс.

�� Play At the age of sixteen schoolchildren leave the elementary school and may continue their education at one of the secondary schools or high schools, as they call them. В возрасте шестнадцати школьники заканчивают начальную школу и могут продолжить свое образование в одной из средних школ или хай-скул, как они их называют.

�� Play The programme of studies in the school includes English, Arithmetic, Geography, History of the USA, Natural Sciences and, besides, Physical Training, Singing, Drawing, Wood or Metal Work, etc. Программа обучения в школе включает английский язык, арифметику, географию, историю США, естественные науки и, кроме того, физическую культуру, пение, рисование, труды и т. д.

�� Play Sometimes they learn a foreign language and general history. Иногда они изучают иностранный язык и общую историю.

�� Play Besides giving general education some high schools teach subjects useful to those who hope to find jobs in industry and agriculture or who want to enter colleges or universities. Кроме предоставления общего образования некоторые средние школы преподают предметы, полезные для тех, кто надеется найти рабочие места в промышленности и сельском хозяйстве или кто хочет пойти в колледжи или университеты.

�� Play After graduating from secondary schools a growing number of Americans go on to higher education. После окончания средней школы все большее число американцев получает высшее образование.

�� Play The students do not take the same courses. Студенты не изучают одинаковые курсы.

�� Play During the first two years they follow a basic programme. В течение первых двух лет они следуют основной программе.

�� Play It means that every student must select at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, Natural Sciences, Modern Languages, History or Physical Training. Это означает, что каждый студент должен выбрать, по крайней мере, один курс из общих отраслей науки: английский язык, естественные науки, современные языки, история и физическая культура.

�� Play After the first two years every student can select subjects according to his professional interest. После первых двух лет каждый студент может выбрать предметы в соответствии с его профессиональными интересами.

�� Play The National Government gives no direct financial aid to the institutions of higher education. Правительство не дает прямой финансовой помощи учреждениям высшего образования.

�� Play Students must pay a tuition fee. Студенты должны оплачивать обучение.

�� Play This creates a financial hardship for some people. Это создает финансовые трудности для некоторых людей.

�� Play Many students have to work to pay their expenses. Многие студенты должны работать, чтобы оплатить свои расходы.

�� Play The Americans place a high value on education. Американцы придают большое значение вопросам образования.

�� Play That’s why Kennedy said, “Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education”. Вот почему Кеннеди сказал: “Наш прогресс как нации не может быть быстрее, чем наш прогресс в образовании”.

Higher Education in the USA (стр. 1 из 2)

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

Семестровая работа за 1 семестр

На тему : Higher education in the USA

Выполнил: студент группы ИВТ-161, Вавилин А.Ю.

Higher Education in the USA.

Finishing school is the beginning of an independent life for millions of school graduates. Many roads are open before them. But it is not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than the 2000 existing in the world.

Out of the more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for “higher education”. Simply by being admitted into one of the most respected universities in the United States, a high school graduate achieves a degree of success. A college at a leading university might receive applications from two percent of these high school graduates, and then accept only one out of every ten who apply. Successful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of :

a) high school records;

b) recommendations from high school teachers;

c) the impression they make during interviews at the university;

d) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT);

The system of higher education in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institution:

1. The university, which may contain:

— several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s four-year degree;

— one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s degree to obtain a master’s or a doctoral degree;

2. The four-year undergraduate institution – the college – most of which are not part of a university;

3. The technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration, and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming;

4. The two-year, or community college, from which students may enter many professions or may go to four-year colleges or universities.

Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the source of its funding. There is no clear or inevitable distinction in terms of quality of education offered between the institutions, which are publicly or privately funded. However, this is not to say that all institutions enjoy equal prestige, nor that there are no material differences among them.

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Many universities and colleges, both public and private, have gained reputations for offering particularly challenging courses, and for providing their students with a higher quality of education. The great majority are generally regarded as quite satisfactory. A few other institutions, conversely, provide only adequate education, and students attend classes, pass examinations and graduate as merely competent, but not outstanding, scholars and professionals. The factors determining whether an institution is one of the best, or one of lower prestige, are: quality of teaching faculty, quality of research facilities, amount of funding available for libraries, special programs, etc., and the competence and number of applicants for admission, i.e. how selective the institution can be in choosing its students. All of these factors reinforce one another. In the United States it is generally recognized that there are more and less desirable institutions in which to study and from which to graduate. The more desirable institutions are generally – but not always – more costly to attend, and having graduated from one of them may bring distinct advantages as an individual seeks employment opportunities and social mobility within the society. Competition to get into such a college prompts a million secondary school students to take the SATs every year. But recently emphasis on admissions examinations has been widely criticized in the United States because the examinations tend to measure competence in mathematics and English. In defense of using the examinations as criteria for admissions, administrators at many universities say that SATs provide a fair way for deciding whom to admit when they have 10 or 12 applicants for every first-year student seat.

Can America’s colleges and universities rest on their accomplishments? About 12 million students currently attend schools of higher education in America. They are students in a society that believe in the bond between education and democracy.

Still, many Americans are not satisfied with the condition of higher education in their country. Perhaps the most widespread complaint has to do with the college curriculum as a whole and with the wide range of electives in particular. In the middle of 1980s, the Association of American Colleges (AAC) issued a report that called for teaching a body of common knowledge to all college students. The National Institute of Education (NIE) issued a somewhat similar report, “Involvement in Learning”. In its report, the NIE concluded that the college curriculum has become “excessively vocational and work-related”. The report also warned that college education may no longer be developing in students “the shared values and knowledge” that traditionally bind Americans together. A serious charge: Is it true?

For the moment, to some degree, it probably is. Certainly, some students complete their degree work without a course in Western Civilization – not to mention other world cultures. Others leave college without having studied science or government. As one response, many colleges have begun reemphasizing a core curriculum that all students must master.

Such problems are signs that American higher education is changing, as it has throughout its history. And, as in the past, this change may be leading in unexpected directions. The Puritans set up colleges to train ministers. But their students made their mark as the leaders of the world’s first constitutional democracy. The land grant colleges were founded to teach agriculture and engineering to the builders of the American West. Today, many of these colleges are leading schools in the world of scientific research. Americans have always had a stake in “making the system work”. They have especially critical reasons for doing so in the field of education. People in the United States today are faced with momentous questions: “What is America’s proper role as the world’s oldest constitutional democracy; its largest, economy; its first nuclear power?”

Americans cherish their right to express opinions on all such issues. But the people of the United States are also painfully aware of how complex such issues are. To take part in dealing with new problems, most Americans feel they need all the information they can get. Colleges and universities are the most important centers of such learning. And whatever improvements may be demanded, their future is almost guaranteed by the American thirst to advance and be well informed. In fact, the next charge in American education may be a trend for people to continue their education in college – for a lifetime.

Высшее образование в США.

Окончание школы — начало независимой жизни для миллионов молодых людей, получивших дипломы. Множество дорог открыто перед ними. Но не так легко выбрать профессию из более двух тысяч существующих в мире.

Из более трех миллионов учащихся, оканчивающих ежегодно среднюю школу, приблизительно один миллион продолжает получать высшее образование. Просто, поступая в один из наиболее престижных университетов Соединенных Штатов, выпускники средней школы достигают большего успеха. Колледж как ведущий университет мог бы принимать заявления от двух процентов выпускников средней школы, и затем принимать только одного из каждых десяти поступающих. Для успешного поступления в такие колледжи претенденты обычно выбираются на основании следующих показателей:

а) высоких оценок в средней школе;

б) рекомендаций от преподавателей средней школы;

в) впечатления, которое они производят на собеседовании в университете;

г) их баллов в интеллектуальных тестах — Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT);

Система высшего образования в Соединенных Штатах сложна. Она включает четыре вида учреждений:

1. Университет, который может включать:

— несколько колледжей для поступивших студентов, претендующих на четырехлетнюю степень бакалавра;

— одну или более школ для продолжения специализированного обучения выше степени бакалавра, чтобы стать специалистом или получить докторскую степень;

2. Четырехлетнее образовательное учреждение – колледж, большинство из которых не являются частью университета;

3. Техническое училище, в котором выпускники средней школы могут проходить курсы продолжительностью от шести месяцев до четырех лет, и изучать различные технические навыки, от парикмахерского дела до бухгалтерского учета и компьютерного программирования;

4. Двухлетнее образовательное учреждение, или общественный колледж, после которого студенты могут работать по различным профессиям или продолжить обучение в четырехлетних колледжах или университетах.

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Любое из этих учреждений, в любой категории, может быть бесплатным или частным, в зависимости от источника его финансирования. Нет никакого очевидного различия в качестве образования, предлагаемого разными учреждениями, финансируемыми открыто или конфиденциально. Однако нельзя сказать, что все учреждения обладают одинаковым престижем, и нет никаких материальных различий среди них.

Множество университетов и колледжей, как бесплатных, так и частных, получили репутацию за предложение особенно спорных курсов, и за обеспечение их студентов более высоким качеством образования. Вообще подавляющее большинство их расценивается весьма удовлетворительно. Некоторые другие учреждения, наоборот, обеспечивают только достаточное образование, их студенты посещают занятия, сдают экзамены и оканчивают как просто компетентные специалисты, но не как выдающиеся ученые и профессионалы. Факторами, определяющими является ли учреждение одним из лучших, или одним из менее престижных, являются: качество обучения факультетов, качество оборудования для исследований, уровень финансирования библиотек, специальных программ, и т.д., а также компетентность и число претендентов на прием, то есть насколько данное учреждение свободно в выборе студентов. Все эти факторы дополняют друг друга. Вообще в Соединенных Штатах признано, что есть более и менее предпочтительные учреждения для обучения и получения высшего образования. Более предпочтительные учреждения обычно, но не всегда, являются более дорогостоящими, и окончание одного из них может принести значительные преимущества, поскольку каждый человек ищет возможность занятости и социальную подвижность в пределах общества. Конкурс на поступление в такой колледж побуждает миллионы старшеклассников сдавать SAT каждый год. Но недавно акцент на вступительных экзаменах широко критиковался в Соединенных Штатах, потому что экзамены позволяют определить компетентность в математике и английском языке. В защиту использования экзаменов как критериев при поступлении, руководители многих университетов говорят, что использование SAT позволяет справедливо решить, кого принять, когда имеется 10 или 12 претендентов на одно место.

Могут ли колледжи и университеты Америки основываться на их результатах? Приблизительно 12 миллионов студентов в настоящее время посещают школы высшего образования в Америке. Они — студенты в обществе, которое верит в связь между образованием и демократией.

Однако, множество американцев не удовлетворены состоянием высшего образования в их стране. Возможно, наиболее широко распространенное недовольство вызывает учебный план колледжа в целом и широкий диапазон дополнительных занятий в частности. В середине 80-ых годов прошлого века Ассоциация Американских Колледжей (AAC) выпустила доклад, в котором призывала к преподаванию базовой части общих знаний всем студентам колледжа. Национальный Институт Образования (NIE) выпустил подобный же доклад- “Участие в обучении”. В своем докладе NIE заключил, что учебный план колледжа стал “чрезмерно профессионально-техническим и связанным с работой”. В нем также предупреждается, что образование колледжа больше не может развивать в студентах “разделенные ценности и знания”, что традиционно связывают Американцев вместе. Серьезное обвинение. Действительно ли это так?

Higher Education in the USA — тема / топик по английскому

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Система образования США

The US educational system is much decentralized and schools vary greatly from state to state. There are three levels of subsidizing of education: federal, state and local. They subsidize 3-5 per cent on a federal level, around 20 per cent on a state level and 70-80 per cent on a local level.

There are 15,000 school districts which are different in size. A school district is governed by the Board of Education/School Board/School Council which is elected every two years by the residents of the school district. Members of school boards perform their responsibilities on a volunteer basis, that means they do not get any salaries. They are to define the policies for the administration of the school district. Teachers, in turn, decide about the program and approaches of teaching.

Every resident pays a school tax to the school district he/she lives in, no matter he/she has school children or not. School education in the United States is free and parents are free to choose a school for their children. But if parents send their child to a school of another school district they have to pay the sum equivalent to the school tax directly to the school the child goes to.

There are also a lot of private schools, mainly religious, and parents have to pay for them. The cost is $ 5,000 — $ 10,000 a year.

There is no home education in the United States. Each invalid is supposed to attend school. School provides all the necessary conditions for them to study.

The school system structure in the United States looks like this. Children start going to school at the age of five. First they go to eight-year elementary school and then to high school or if they go to five- or six-year elementary school, they then attend three- or four-year middle school, and then high school. Teenagers study at high school four years and graduate from it at the age of eighteen. Members of each grade in high school have special names:

— a ninth grader is called a Freshman,
— a tenth grader — a Sophomore,
— an eleventh grader — a Junior,
— a twelfth grader — a Senior.

The completion of high school is called graduation. In order to graduate, students must accumulate a certain amount of credits during their four years at school. Credits are points given for every subject that is passed successfully. In addition to that, students must successfully complete specific subjects required by the state or local educational authorities, such as US history, English, mathematics and physical education. This may vary from state to state.

Over 60% of school graduates continue their education in two- or four-year colleges or universities. At least 10% of high school students are allowed to finish school at the age of 16.

A school year starts at the beginning of September or at the end of August and ends in late June or early July, just before the Independence Day, and is divided into three terms/trimesters or four quarters. School children have winter and spring breaks for two or three weeks and summer vacation for six up to eight weeks.

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There is a great variety of Saturday, Sunday, vocational and other schools. The most popular one is summer school. It is for students who want to get a deeper knowledge in a particular subject, or to skip a year, or just fail their examinations. It lasts six weeks and parents have to pay for it.

Students go to school five days a week. They get to and from school by a school bus. A typical school day in America starts at 7.30 AM with the Pledge of Allegiance in which the US flag and the whole nation is glorified. Then follows the homeroom period during which a homeroom teacher calls the roll and the principal makes his/her announcements over the intercom. Every day students usually have seven periods which last 50-55, sometimes 45 minutes. In some schools there are four periods lasting 90 minutes. There are 2-5 minute passing between periods and a break of 30 minutes for lunch.

American schools today house a large number of students but making friends can be difficult, as the same group of students does not attend all the classes. In order to encourage meeting and knowing a broader population at school, special emphasis is placed on so-called extracurricular activities where interests, rather than academic ability, bring students together.

Extracurricular activities are the many club meetings, music or drama rehearsals, and sport practice sessions that take place in American high school in the afternoon after classes. These meetings are a very important part of high school life, since they are a link between different groups of students who are placed in various academic programs. Students who usually would not meet in the classroom get to know each other in areas of common interest. They give students the opportunity to further their specific interests in various fields and to spend their free time together.

Even though they are not mandatory, many students get involved in different extracurricular activities. Since students spend a lot of time participating in various activities, school becomes the center of social life for students. They not only go to school to study the material presented in class, but they also meet together to socialize and to pursue their interests.

Other important activities in American high school are sports teams. Most schools offer a variety of teams for both boys and girls. American football, basketball and base-ball are played in the majority of schools. In addition, one may find tennis, gymnastics, hockey, swimming, golf, volleyball, cross-country, and track and field teams, depending again on the size and financial resources of the school. Soccer is also growing in popularity.

Usually schools have varsity teams, which complete with other schools and which have very intensive training, and intramural teams, which play other teams within the school itself. In most schools, there is a great deal of competition between students to join the varsity team. There often are schools regulations that make it difficult for new students to join. On the intramural teams most students are welcome to participate.

In many schools girls have fewer possibilities than boys. Smaller schools may not have some of the above-mentioned teams for girls. But a special group of girls and boys play an important part at the football and basketball games. They are called cheerleaders and they lead the crowd in cheers for their team.

In addition to clubs and sports teams, one will find the Student Council and the class officer meetings. Students are elected by their school and classmates to represent them in these bodies and to organize activities for their school.

U.S. colleges and universities offer a vide variety of programs ranging from highly academic courses to very practical ones. Students can be educated not only for academic professions, but also for technical professions, such as mechanics, nursing, medical technology, computer technology and book-keeping.

In universities young people study four years to get bachelor’s degree. If one wants to get master’s degree he/she must study two years more and do a research work. If one has master’s degree, studies more, does a research work and passes an oral, comprehensive examination he/she gets doctor’s degree (PhD).

Education in the USA — Образование в США (1)

The American system of school education differs from the systems in other countries. There are state public schools, private elementary schools and private secondary schools.

Public schools are free and private schools are fee-paying. Each state has its own system of public schools. Elementary education begins at the age of six or seven, when a child goes to the first grade (form). At the age of sixteen schoolchildren leave the elementary school and may continue their education at one of the secondary schools or high schools, as they call them. The programme of studies in the elementary school includes English, Arithmetic, Geography, History of the USA, Natural sciences and, besides, Physical Training, Singing, Drawing, wood or metal work, etc. Sometimes they learn a foreign language and general history.

Besides giving general education some high schools teach subjects useful to those who hope to find jobs in industry and agriculture or who wants to enter colleges or universities.

After graduating from secondary schools a growing number of Americans go on to higher education. The students do not take the same courses. During the first two years they follow a basic programme. It means that every student must select at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, Natural sciences, Modern languages, History or Physical education. After the first two years every student can select subjects according to his professional interest.

The National Government gives no direct financial aid to the institutions of higher education. Students must pay a tuition fee. This creates a finantial hardship for some people. Many of the students have to work to pay their expenses.

Americans place a high value on education. That’s why Kennedy said, «Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education».

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