Higher Education in Great Britain — тема топик по английскому

Higher Education in Great Britain

Еще один текст на английском о высшем образовании в Великобритании (первый текст можете найти здесь). Перевод представлен ниже.

«School students who go on to higher education or professional training usually take «A» level exams in 2 or 3 subjects. As a rule universities accept students on the basis of their «A» level results, but sometimes they may interview them as well.

In 1971 the Open University was started, where these formal qualifications are not necessary. Nearly a quarter of all adult part-time students follow its degree courses (psychology, law, design, engineering, business, management and others) on radio and television.

Now there are 47 universities in Great Britain, 30 former polytechnics (now also universities), more than 350 colleges and institutes of higher education.

Undergraduate courses normally take 3 years of full-time study, although a number of courses take longer (including medicine, architecture and foreign languages). In most cases they lead to a Bachelor’s degree in Arts or Science. There are various postgraduate degrees as well, including Master and Doctor of Philosophy. The last two are awarded for research in arts or sciences.

Degrees can be awarded either by the institution itself, or by the Council for National Academic Awards, particularly in vocational areas. Students of law, architecture and some other professions can take qualifications instead of degrees.

At present, students who have been accepted by universities receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may sometimes cover living expenses. In most cases grants have to be paid back and now for this purpose many banks offer loans.

The most popular universities are Oxford and Cambridge. The are famous for their academic excellence and in contrast to other British universities are often called «Oxbridge».

А вот и перевод на русский язык:

Школьники, которые решают получать высшее образование или профессиональную подготовку, обычно сдают экзамены (A-level) по 2-3 предметам. Как правило, университеты принимают абитуриентов по результатам этого экзамена, но иногда требуется и прохождение собеседования.

В 1971 году начал функционировать Открытый Университет, где подобные требования для поступления не нужны. Около четверти взрослых студентов-заочников проходят курсы (психология, право, дизайн, проектирование, бизнес, управление и другие) по радио и телевидению.

В настоящее время в Британии действует 47 университетов, 30 бывших политехнических институтов (которые теперь имеют статус университетов), более 350 колледжей и других учреждений высшего образования.

Базовое образование обычно занимает 3 года очного обучения, хотя некоторые курсы длятся дольше (включая медицину, архитектуру и иностранные языки). В большинстве случаев выпускник получает степень бакалавра в области искусств или наук. Кроме этого существуют различные ученые степени, например магистр или доктор философии. Для получения последних необходимо проведение исследовательской работы в области искусства или науки.

Степени присуждаются либо самим учебным заведением, либо Национальным Советом по присуждению ученых степеней, в особенности в профессиональной сфере. Студентам в области права, архитектуры и некоторых других профессий присваиваются квалификации вместо степеней.

В настоящее время поступившие в университет студенты получают гранты от местных властей, которые покрывают расходы на обучение, а иногда и на проживание. В большинстве случаев гранты должны быть возвращены, и сейчас для этих целей многие банки предлагают специальные кредиты .

Самыми популярными университетами являются Оксфордский и Кембриджский. Оба они знамениты благодаря высочайшему качеству образования, и часто, противопоставляя их другим высшим учебным заведения, их называют «Oксбридж».

Полезные выражения:

As a rule — как правило

full-time study — дневное отделение

in most cases в большинстве случаев

to be awarded for — быть награжденным за что-то

to be accepted by university быть принятым университетом

in contrast to sth в противовес чему-либо

Higher Education in Great Britain
(Высшее образование в Великобритании)

After finishing secondary school or college you can apply to a university, polytechnic, college of education or you can continue to study in a college of further education.

The academic year in Britain’s universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of education is divided into 3 terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the middle of December, the middle of January to the end of March, from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July.

There are 46 universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol and Birmingham.

Good A-level results in at least 2 subjects are necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. For all British citizens a place at a university brings with it a grant from their local education authority.

English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction and way of student life.

After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Some courses, such as languages and medicine, may be one or two years longer. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies. Later he/she may continue to take Master’s Degree and then a Doctor’s Degree.

The 2 intellectual eyes of Britain – Oxford & Cambridge Universities – date from the 12 & 13 centuries. They are known for all over the world and are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge, but both of them are completely independent. Only education elite go to Oxford and Cambridge.

The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen & Edinburgh date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

In the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries the so-called Redbrick universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, and Birmingham. During the late sixties and early seventies some 20 ‘new’ universities were set up. Sometimes they are called ‘concrete and glass’ universities. Among them are the universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others.

During these years the government set up 30 Polytechnics. The Polytechnics, like the universities, offer first and higher degrees. Some of them offer full-time and sandwich courses [sandwich course курс обучения, чередующий теорию с практикой; сочетание общеобразовательного и профессионального обучения с работой на производстве] (for working students). Colleges of Education provide two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the graduate specializes in some Particular subjects.

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Some of them who decide to leave school at the age of 16 may go to a further education college where they can follow a course in typing, engineering, town planning, cooking, or hairdressing, full-time or part-time. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry.

There’s an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It’s intended for people who study in their own free time and who ‘attend’ lectures by watching TV and listening to the radio. They keep in touch by phone and letter with their tutors and attend summer schools. The Open University students have no formal qualifications and would be unable to enter ordinary universities.

Some 80,000 overseas students study at British universities or further education colleges or train in nursing, law, banking or in industry.

Higher Education In Great Britain – Высшее образование в Великобритании

�� Play For seven hundred years Oxford and Cambridge universities dominated the British education. В течение семисот лет Оксфордский и Кембриджский университеты были главными в системе британского образования.

�� Play Scotland had four universities, all founded before A. D. 1600. В Шотландии было четыре университета, и все они основаны до 1600 года.

�� Play Wales only acquired a university in the 20th century; it consisted of four university colleges located in different cities (Cardiff, Swansea, Bangor, and Aberystwith). Университет в Уэльсе основан только в XX веке, в него входили четыре университетских колледжи в городах Кардифф, Свонси, Бангор и Абериствиз.

�� Play The first English university after Oxford and Cambridge (sometimes referred to as Oxbridge) was Durham, in the North of England, founded in 1832. Следующим после Оксфорда и Кембриджа (иногда их называют Оксбридж) называют Дюрхем на севере Англии, который был основан в 1832 году.

�� Play The University of London was founded a few years later in 1836. Лондонский Университет был основан несколькими годами позже, в 1836 году.

�� Play During the nineteenth century institutions of higher education were founded in most of the biggest industrial towns, like Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield (sometimes called the Redbrick Universities). В девятнадцатом столетии высшие учебные заведения были основаны в самых крупных индустриальных городах — Бирмингеме, Манчестере, Лидсе, Шеффилде (их еще называют университетами Редбрик).

�� Play At first they did not have full university status but were known as university colleges; since 1945, however, all have become independent universities, and in recent years a number of other universities have been founded: Sussex, Essex, Warwick, and others. Сначала у них не было университетского статуса, но они были известны как университетские колледжи, а с 1945 года все стали независимыми университетами. В последние годы основаны такие университеты как Сассекс, Эссекс, Варвик и другие.

�� Play In the middle 60s there was a further new development. В середине 60-х годов университеты получили новое развитие.

�� Play Some of the local technical colleges maintained by local authorities had gained special prestige. Некоторые из местных высших технических учебных заведений, поддерживаемых местными органами власти, приобрели особый статус.

�� Play By 1967 ten of these had been given charters as universities. К 1967 году десяти из них были даны права университетов.

�� Play Many of them are in the biggest cities where there were already established universities; so now we have the University of Aston (Birmingham), Salford (close to Manchester), Strathclyde (Glasgow), Herriot-Watt University (Edinburgh), Brunei University (London). Многие расположены в больших городах, где уже были университеты. Сегодня это университеты Астон (Бирмингем), Салфорд (рядом с Манчестером), Стратклид (Глазго), университет Хэрриот-Ватт (Эдинбург), университет Брунея (Лондон).

�� Play When we add all these together we find that the number of universities in England increased within ten years from nineteen to thirty-six, and in Scotland from four to eight. Проанализировав все это, мы видим, что число университетов в Англии выросло за десять лет с девятнадцати до тридцати шести, и в Шотландии — с четырех до восьми.

�� Play Oxford university is a federation of colleges, and it is impossible to understand its structure unless one first understands the nature and function of these colleges, which have no resemblance whatever with the institutions called “colleges” in America. Оксфордский университет является федерацией колледжей, и нельзя понять его структуру, не поняв структуру и функцию этих колледжей, которые не имеют ничего общего с американскими «колледжами».

�� Play Oxford has twenty-three ordinary colleges for men, five for women. В Оксфорде двадцать три обычных — мужских — колледжа и пять женских.

�� Play All these are parallel institutions, and none of them is connected with any particular field of study. Все это — учреждения с общей программой, и ни один из них не связан с какой-то отдельной областью науки.

�� Play No matter what subject a student proposes to study he may study at any of the men’s colleges. Какой бы предмет не предложили изучать студенту, он может учиться в любом из этих колледжей.

�� Play Each college has a physical existence in the shape of a dining-hall, chapel, and residential rooms (enough to accommodate about half the student membership, the rest living in lodgings in the town). В каждом колледже есть столовая, церковь и жилые помещения (достаточные для того, чтобы поселить половину студентов, остальные живут на квартирах в городе).

�� Play It is governed by its Fellows (commonly called “dons”), of whom there are usually about twenty or thirty. Университетом управляют члены совета колледжа (преподаватели), обычно это двадцать или тридцать человек.

�� Play The dons are also responsible for teaching the students of the college through the tutorial system. Они также отвечают за учебу студентов колледжа по консультативной системе.

�� Play The Fellows elect the Head of the college (whose title varies from college to college). Члены совета выбирают председателя колледжа (в каждом колледже этот титул называется по-разному).

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�� Play The colleges vary very much in size and extent of grounds and buildings. Колледжи отличаются по размеру и площади земель и зданий.

�� Play Colleges choose their own students, and a student only becomes a member of the University by having been accepted by a college. Колледжи выбирают своих студентов, и студент становится членом университета только после принятия в колледж.

�� Play Students are chosen mainly on academic merit, but the policy of colleges in this respect varies from college to college. Студенты выбираются преимущественно за академические заслуги, но политика колледжей по этому вопросу тоже разная.

�� Play Some tend to be rather keen to admit a few men who are very good at rugby or some other sport, or sons of former students or of lords, or of eminent citizens, or of millionaires. Некоторые колледжи стремятся принимать тех студентов, которые хорошо играют в регби или какой-то другой вид спорта, или сыновей прежних своих студентов или лордов, или выдающихся граждан, или миллионеров.

�� Play The colleges and university buildings are scattered about the town, mostly in the central area, though the scientific laboratories and the women’s colleges are quite a long way out. Здания колледжей и университетов разбросаны по городу, как правило, — в его центральной части, хотя научные лаборатории и женские колледжи расположены далеко от центра.

�� Play The university teachers are mostly Fellows of colleges, who may at the same time hold university appointments as lecturers or professors. Университетские преподаватели — это, как правило, члены совета колледжей, которые занимают в университете должности лекторов и профессоров.

�� Play Part of the teaching is by means of lectures and any student- may attend any university lecture. Часть учебы — это лекции, любой студент может посещать любую университетскую лекцию.

�� Play At the beginning of each term (there are three terms in the Oxford academic year) a list is published showing all the lectures being given during the term within each faculty, and every student can choose which lectures he will attend, though his own college tutor will advise him which lectures seem likely to be more useful. В начале каждого семестра (в Оксфорде, например, три семестра в учебном году) публикуется расписание лекций по факультетам на семестр, и каждый студент может выбрать, какие лекции он будет посещать. Как правило, его университетский куратор может посоветовать ему, какие лекции наиболее важны.

�� Play Attendance at lectures is not compulsory, and no records of attendance are kept. Присутствие на лекциях не обязательно, и никакой учет посещений не ведется.

�� Play Apart from lectures, teaching is by means of the “tutorial” system, which is a system of individual tuition organized by the colleges. Кроме лекций преподавание ведется с помощью консультационной системы — это система индивидуального обучения, организованная в колледжах.

�� Play Each Fellow in a college is tutor in his own subject to the undergraduates who are studying it. Каждый преподаватель колледжа является одновременно и куратором по своему предмету для студентов последнего курса.

�� Play Each student goes to his tutors room once every week to read out an essay which he has written, and for an hour he and the tutor discuss the essay. Каждый студент приходит к своему преподавателю один раз в неделю, чтобы прочитать работу, которую он написал, и на протяжении часа обсуждают ее с наставником.

�� Play A student does not necessarily go only to his own tutor but may be assigned to another don in his own college or in another college when he is studying some particular topic which is outside the special interest of his own tutor. Студенту не обязательно посещать только лекции своего наставника. Он может заниматься с любым преподавателем в своем или в другом колледже, если он изучает тему, которая не входит в круг интересов его наставника.

Higher education in great britain

Young people get higher education at the universities. Not everybody can afford it because it is not free. There are about 50 universities and 350 colleges and institutes of higher education in Great Britain. The oldest and the most famous are Oxford and Cambridge Universities which were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries.

A university consists of a number of faculties: divinity, medicine, philosophy, law, music, natural science, economics, engineering, agriculture, commerce and education. After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later, having studied for two more years at the post-graduate courses they get the Master’s Degree and then the most talented people may proceed to a Doctor’s Degree.

English universities greatly differ from each other. Each university has its own problems, each looks at them in its own way. But there are some tendencies common to them all.

One of the tendencies of higher education in Britain is the increase in number of students. This leads to the expansion of universities. On the whole, British universities are comparatively small. The approximate number is seven-eight thousand students, most universities having under three thousand, some even less than 1,500 students.

Another tendency is the increase in student studying technical sciences. One more factor is the tendency of university study to extend beyond the first degree. The further development of postgraduate courses appears to be reasonable. Some universities have extra-mural departments where students study by correspondence. London University, for example, has about 12,000 students at this department.

At present students may receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course and some living expenses.

Get ready to answer the questions.

1. Can anyone get higher education in Britain? 2. What faculties are there at British universities? 3. What kind of a specialist is a student who has studied for three years at the university? 4. How can young people get the degree of Master? 5. What are the three main tendencies in the development of modern higher education? 6. Whom are extra-mural departments intended for? 7. What can help the student in paying for his education?

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British universities

There are no state universities in Great Britain; each of the universities has its own independent government.

For several hundred years Oxford and Cambridge, the two greatest Universities in the country, dominate the British education. Admission to them is very difficult, the examinations are very severe. But if a fellow gets admission, gets through, gets his degree — he is made for life. An Oxford and Cambridge degree is accompanied by all sorts of privileges. And it is no accident that Oxford and Cambridge are familiarly known as Oxbridge (Oxford+Cambridge): this term is regarded in Britain as the sum of everything best in university life. The majority of Prime Ministers, political leaders and leaders in public life are Oxbridge. Big Business men and all the other Bigs of the country mostly belong to the Oxbridge category. And if it comes to getting a job, an Oxonian* or Cambrigian* will get the preference, though he may have less brain and knowledge than a Redbrick man.

In the 20 th century 13 major provincial universities were housed in dreary redbrick buildings to educate students in industrial regions, emphasizing technical subjects rather than the classics. They contrasted with the Gothic grey stone of Oxford and Cambridge. Now the more recent universities are all glass and steel buildings. There are some excellent Redbrick universities in Britain, many of which (for example, in London, Manchester or Bristol) are not in the least inferior to the Grey Stone; in some fields of learning they may be even superior. But the prejudice is firmly implanted in the minds of a great number of people, even to this day.

In addition to the 47 universities which can award degrees, there is a body called the National Council for Academic Awards (NCAA) which gives degrees to students who have taken degree courses at Polytechnics or Colleges of Technology. Many of these courses are ‘sandwich’ courses, because the student spends six months of each year of his four years course studying at the College and the other six months he works in a related occupation in industry.

Degrees are also now awarded by the ‘Open Universities’, which accept adult students for spare-time study by mainly correspondence.

*Oxonian — студент (выпускник) Оксфордского университета

* Cambrigian — студент (выпускник) Кембриджского университета

Get ready to answer the questions.

1. Are there any state universities in the UK? 2. What universities dominate the British education? 3. What is Oxbridge? 4. What kind of people are usually graduates of Oxbridge? 5 What are Redbrick men? 6. What universities are Redbrick? 7. What prejudice is there among the people of Britain? 8. What other bodies, besides Oxford and Cambridge, can award degrees in Britain? 9. What does a ‘sandwich’ course mean?

Education in Great Britain — Образование в Великобритании

Education in Great Britain is provided by the Local Education Authority (LEA) in each county. Until recently, each LEA was free to decide how to organize education in its own area. However, in 1988 the «National Curriculum» was introduced. It means that there is greater government control over what is taught in schools now.

Children under five don’t have to go to school, but there is some free nursery-school education before that age. The places are usually given to families in special circumstances, for example families with one parent only. That’s why in many areas parents have formed play groups where children under five years can go for a morning or afternoon a couple of times a week.

At the age of five children go to primary schools, first to infant schools for pupils aged from 5 to 7 and then to junior, schools for pupils from 8 to 11 years.

Some parents choose to pay for private education though there are free state schools. Private schools are called by different names compared to state schools. The preparatory schools are for pupils aged up to 13, and the public schools are for 13 to 18 year-olds. These schools are very expensive and they are attended only by about 5 per cent of the schoolchildren.

Free secondary education has been available to all children in Britain since 1944. Children must go to school until the age of 16, and pupils may stay on for one or two years more if they wish.

Over 80 per cent of schoolchildren go to comprehensive schools at the age of 11. These schools are not selective — you don’t have to pass an exam to go there. But before 1965 all children took an exam at the age of 11 called the «11+». The top 20 per cent were chosen to go to the academic grammar schools. Those who failed the «11+» went to secondary modern schools. A lot of people thought that this system of selection at the age of 11 was unfair on many children. So comprehensive schools were introduced to offer education for pupils of all abilities. There are a few LEAs who still keep the old system, but most LEAs have now changed over completely to nonselective education in comprehensive schools.

Comprehensive schools want to develop the talents of each individual child. So they offer a wide choice of subjects, from art and craft, woodwork and domestic science to the sciences, modern languages, computer studies, etc. All these subjects are enjoyed by both girls and boys. All pupils move to the next class automatically at the end of the year.

At the age of 14 or 15 pupils begin to choose their exam subjects. In 1988 a new public examination — the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) — was introduced for 16 year- olds. This examination assesses pupils on the work they do in the 4th and 5th year at secondary school, For University entrance pupils have to take «А» Level (Advanced Level) GCE exam.

Many people decide to leave school at the age of 16 and go to a Further Education (FE) College for practical vocational training, for example in engineering, typing, cooking or hairdressing.

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