Unit 7 Topic: Higher education in Russia and the University I study at Text. Higher education in our country and my University
Higher education plays an important part in the life of our country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists. Higher education in this country is accessible to all. The greater part of students study free of charge, some – on a commercial basis.
The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms. At the end of each semester students take exams. If the results are good students get grants. Twice a year students have vacations – two weeks in winter and two months in summer.
The first and second-year students obtain thorough information in the fundamental sciences. The curriculum is enriched and broadened by such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.
At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their “major” subjects.
In senior years theory is accompanied by practical training.
After four years they will get a Bachelor’s degree. Then the students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further study and research get a Master’s degree. After graduating they may continue research and get a still higher degree.
As for me, I study at the Russian State Vocational Pedagogic University. It was founded in 1979. At first it was called the Sverdlovsk Engineer Pedagogic Institute. Not long ago it was given the Russian status. The structure of our university includes different departments (full time and correspondence). Each department has a number of faculties. I study at the faculty of . . . . I’m a full time student.
My university has several buildings, old and new ones. There are many various laboratories, a good library and a computer center in the main building.
Words and phrases to remember:
to study free of charge/on a commercial basis – бесплатно/платно
to take exams – сдавать экзамены
to get a grant – получать стипендию
to obtain thorough information in – получать подробную информацию по
to be enriched – быть обогащенным
to be broadened – быть расширенным
to be accessible – быть доступным
to get advanced knowledge – получать углубленные знания
to graduate – закончить вуз
to continue research – продолжить исследование
a full time/correspondence department – дневное/заочное
a curriculum — расписание
Answer the questions:
1. What is the aim of higher education in our country?
2. Is it accessible for all?
3. Do the students study all free of charge?
4. What can be said about the academic year?
5. What are the stages of education?
6. What university do you study at?
7. When was it founded?
8. What was it called at first?
9. When was it given the Russian status?
10. What is the structure of our university?
11. What faculty do you study at?
13. Do you enjoy studying at this university?
Ex. 1. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Сейчас есть институты, где все учатся на коммерческой основе.
2. Многие студенты не получают стипендию, так как они учатся плохо.
3. В конце каждого семестра мы сдаем экзамены.
4. На первом и втором курсах они получают подробные сведения из области фундаментальных наук.
5. Наша еда должна быть обогащена минералами.
6. Эта дорога должна быть расширена.
7. На старших курсах они получают углубленные знания по предметам.
8. После окончания института можно продолжить исследования.
9. Мой друг – студент заочного отделения.
Ex. 2. Be ready to speak about our system of education and your university.
Educational System in Russia is not so complicated as it is in Great Britain.
The school education is compulsory.
Pupils begin to go to school at the age of seven. The pupils are not streamed as they are in England.
When they complete nine grades, they can either continue to study at school for two more years or to go to a professional school, where they study not only main subjects but are able to learn some profession and to become skilled workers.
At schools the pupils study many subjects. They also have physical training and practical labour activities The school children usually have four, to seven lessons 5 or 6 days a week.
At the end of the school-year they usually have to pass some exams. They have short vacations, in autumn, winter and spring, and a three-month vacation in summer.
When school pupils leave school, they can try to continue education. For that they have to take entrance examinations to the university they choose. If they enter, they usually study for another 4, 5, or 6 years.
After graduating from the university they get a diploma but they can continue studies to obtain a degree. They are called post-graduate students. In many universities the education is not free, in them the students have to pay a certain amount of money for the whole period of education.
Our system of education has many advantages. But it also has many problems: of qualified teachers, text-books, school programs, financial support of the state etc., and it will take a long time to solve them.
complicated — запутанный, сложный
entrance examinations — вступительные экзамены
System of Education in Russia
Education in Russia is a set of study programs which are compiled in accordance with the regulations on the state standard of education. However, the system of education in Russia has its special features which we are going to look closer at in this article.
Education in Russia includes several stages:
- Pre-school education
- General secondary education
- Vocational education
- Higher education
Pre-school education is a first stage in the system of education which is represented by crèches and kindergartens, less frequently by other educational institutions which look after children and provide education according to pre-school education program. Every parent is ensured with a possibility to send their child to one of these institutions.
Children can start going to crèches when they are 1-year old, and they can stay there until when they are 3 years old. After that, they go to kindergartens. Children complete their education at kindergartens at the age of 6 or 7. In Russia pre-school education is not compulsory, so parents decide if their children will attend a crèche or a kindergarten or they won’t.
Recently there also appeared pre-schools where children can go at the age of 5. There children learn basic reading and writing skills.
General Secondary Education
According to the law of the Russian Federation, general secondary education includes:
- Primary general secondary education (from 6 to 10 years of age, 1-4 grades)
- Basic general secondary education (from 10 to 15 years of age, 5-9 grades)
- Complete general secondary education (from 15 to 17years of age, 10-11 grades)
When a child turns 6 years old, he/she starts obtaining primary general education. Children can go to a school, gymnasium, or lyceum. Gymnasiums and lyceums are different from schools as they provide advanced training, or they introduce additional study subjects which will be useful for the students who are planning to enter higher educational institutions.
After completing primary secondary education, children at the age of 10 undergo basic general education. It lasts for 5 years. After grade 9 students receive certificate of general education which allows them to continue their education at grade 10 at school, gymnasium, or lyceum.
Complete general secondary education is the last stage of general education which lasts for 2 years. Then, at grade 11 students take examinations and receive certificates of complete general secondary education.
After school children in Russia have a wide choice of educational institutions where they can obtain vocational education, whose aim is to train qualified workers.
After graduating grade 9 or 11, children can enter a technical school or college. There is one feature: if children enter a college or technical school after grade 11, their training will take shorter time, as they have already completed a program of general secondary education at grades 10 and 11.
In what way a college is different from a technical school?
The level of education at college is considered to be higher than at technical school, as the system of education there is similar to higher education. Technical schools are more specific, and the level of education there is considered to be basic.
In Russia, there is a 3-level higher education:
This is a complete higher education. Students who have graduated general secondary school, or those who obtained vocational education can get admitted to bachelor’s course. After completing a bachelor’s program, graduates receive a diploma with their qualification.
Unlike bachelor’s program, after graduating the specialist program, a graduate obtains a specialist diploma.
Master’s program is a second level of higher education. Only students who already hold bachelor’s or specialist’s degrees can do master’s program. Doing a master’s program, you can expand your knowledge and improve your qualification in the profession you have already chosen.
Higher education is a final stage of education in Russia. According to the law of the Russian Federation institutes, universities, and academies are recognized as institutions of higher education.
Institute trains specialists in one sphere, for example, economics, psychology, or medicine. It is its peculiar feature.
University offers a wide range of specialties. At university, you can undergo training in various areas.
Academy, in turn, differs with its narrower set of specialties for one particular industry, for example, agricultural academy, mining academy, economic academy, etc.
There is also an incomplete higher education. Students study at least for two years, although they were not able to complete the full course.
In conclusion, we would like to mention that the system of education in Russia is organized in the way so any citizen of Russia who has a desire to study is provided with this opportunity. After all, if a person has certain knowledge, they can choose a school and a sphere that are really interested in.
Russia’s education reform
Russia’s Education Reform
by Ina Chiriliuc
Almost two years after Russia fully introduced its Unified State Exam (later referred to as EGE –“Ediny Gosudarstvenny Ekzamen”), students, parents and teachers are still dismayed by the change. The exam is similar to the American SAT-s and is a mandatory requirement for acceptance into higher education institutions. At the polar opposite of the oral exams and essays that were the basis of the Soviet testing system, the new multiple choice testing is supposed to be “directed against corruption and should be much more transparent”, according to president Medvedev, a strong supporter of the EGE.
Introducing the EGE is part of Russia’s commitments as a member of the Council of Europe, under the Bologna Convention on Higher Education. Besides its strategic role, this education reform is expected to introduce an unbiased, consistent and measurable method of evaluating students before they enter universities.
The intentions behind EGE are apparently the best, but people are still protesting; the main subjective reason being that it completely substitutes the once glorious Soviet education system, which was very focused on science and produced bright minds. Unfortunately the reality is that the former Soviet system has been lagging behind the rest of the world for quite some time and Russia has been losing its best high-school graduates in favour of Germany, US and UK. A reform was thus necessary. A more believable reason to reject the new EGE is that it has caused even more corruption, particularly in schools. Teachers were caught taking the exams in place of students for 40000 rubles.
Moreover, students and teachers complain that the new exams are unfair, very different from what they were used to and are unable to measure students’ creativity. They may have a point, but if Russia wants to reduce corruption and produce diplomas which are recognized in Europe, there is no point in fighting the change. It will take a while before the tests are objective and relevant, before students and teachers get used to preparing and taking them in a fair manner, but I think it is all for a good cause. With every reform, there will be supporters and opponents, but Russia may just be on the right track to a modernized education system.
Топик «Образование в России» (Education in Russia)
Exception [ɪkˈsepſ(ə)n] — исключение; Compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsərɪ] — обязательно; Skill [skɪl] — мастерство; To depend [dɪˈpend] — зависить; Mandatory [ˈmændətərɪ] — обязательный;
Education is an important part of modern life.
Originally Russian education starts from the early age. Children can start going to kindergarten from the age of two, but this is not a compulsory education. It depends on parents’ decision and child’s wish to attend this institution.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils start going to school from the age of seven and till 16.
Mandatory education in Russia is presented by three types of schools: primary, secondary and high.
The primary school teaches its pupils elementary skills, such as reading, writing, counting. Many schools also offer foreign languages or some other special disciplines at this age.
The most important period is the secondary school, which starts from the 4th or 5th grade, depending on school. This is the time when children start learning Biology, Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Computing, and many other new subjects.
At the 9th grade children face a very important period in their life. They have to choose whether to continue school education, or to leave for other types of educational institutions, such as college, specialized schools and else. If the pupil decides to continue studying in high school, which lasts for two years, he can enter the university after school graduation.
Of course, it’s only the general pattern of education in Russia, but there can also be some exceptions nowadays. For example, there are lots of special schools, where they pay attention only to particular subjects. Also, apart from state schools, there are a number of private schools, where education is not free of charge.
When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their educaton in institutes or universities.