Dinosaurs

Динозавры

энциклопедия динозавров и ископаемых рептилий

Динозавр как и другие доисторические животные подробно рассмотрены в нашей энциклопедии динозавров. Динозавры (Dinosaurs) появились на нашей планете за миллионы лет до появления первого человека, поэтому вымирание динозавров по сей день остается великой загадкой нашей планеты. Эта энциклопедия динозавров поможет вам разобраться в этих и других вопросах, узнать многое о гиганских хищных динозаврах, таких как: тираннозавр, аллозавр, велоцираптор, спинозавр или о мирных травоядных таких как диплодок, анкилозавр и игуанодон. Так же вы можите узнать всё про геологические эпохи: вся подробная информация по каждому из исторических периодов представлена в соответствующем разделе. Динозавр, наименование которого вы не знаете, вы легко отыщете блягодаря гибкой системе поиска изображений. А если вы помните как называется тот, или иной вид просто наберите его в поиске. Так по запросу Стегозавр, вы найдёте все изображения с этим динозавром. Большое разнообразие картинок и рисунков с динозаврами пердставлены в галерее энциклопедии так же там вы можите найти обои с динозаврами. Динопедия поможет вам погрузиться в богатство знаний о великих гигантах, которые бродили по земле задолго до появления первого человека!

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Tawa hallae — старейший из динозавров

В начале 2004 года группа палеонтологов из штата Техас, с помощью добровольцев, обнаружила в северной части Нью Мексико останки ранее неизвестного науке плотоядного динозавра. Исследование вызвало ряд дискуссий по поводу ранней эволюции динозавров, в частности вопросы “распростронения” динозавров по суперконтиненту Пангея.
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Both of these dinosaur lineages originated at about the same time. Both evolved into many species that were ecologically important and persisted until about 66 million years ago. Both groups included quadrupeds that walked on all four legs, as well as bipeds that walked erect on their much-larger hind legs. All of the ornithischians had birdlike beaks on their lower jaws and all were herbivores. Most of the carnivorous, or predatory, dinosaurs were saurischians, as were some of the herbivorous species. Interestingly, despite some resemblance between ornithischian dinosaur and bird physiology, it appears that the first birds actually evolved from saurischians.

Carnivorous dinosaurs

The carnosaurs were a group of saurischian predators, or theropods, that grew large and had enormous hind limbs but tiny fore limbs. Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest carnivore that has ever stalked Earth; its scientific name is derived from Greek words for “ tyrant reptile king. ” This fearsome, bipedal predator of the Late Cretaceous could grow to a length of 45 ft (14 m) and may have weighed as much as 9 tons (8.2 metric tons). Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex ) had a massive head and a mouth full of about 60 dagger-shaped, 6-in long (15-cm-long), very sharp, serrated teeth, which were renewed throughout the life of the animal. This predator probably ran in a lumbering fashion using its powerful hind legs, which may also have been wielded as sharp-clawed, kicking weapons. It is thought that T. rex may have initially attacked its prey with powerful head-butts and then torn the animal apart with its enormous, 3 ft long (1 m long) jaws. Alternatively, T. rex may have been a scavenger of dead dinosaurs. The relatively tiny fore legs of T. rex probably only had little use. The long and heavy tail of T. rex was used as a counter-balance for the animal while it was running and as a stabilizing prop while it was standing.

Albertosaurus was also a large theropod of the Late Cretaceous. Albertosaurus was similar to Tyrannosaurus, but it was a less massively built animal at about 25 ft (8 m) long and 2 tons (1.8 metric tons) in weight. Albertosaurus probably moved considerably faster than Tyrannosaurus.

Allosaurus was a gigantic, bipedal predator of the Late Jurassic. Allosaurus could grow to a length of 36 ft (12 m) and a weight of 2 tons (1.8 metric tons). The jaws of Allosaurus were loosely hinged, and they could detach to swallow large chunks of prey.

Spinosaurus was a “ fin-back ” (or “ sail-back ” ) dinosaur of the Late Cretaceous period that was distantly related to Allosaurus. Spinosaurus had long, erect, skin-covered, bony projections from its verte-brae that may have been used to regulate body temperature or perhaps for behavioral displays to impress others or attract a mate. Spinosaurus could have achieved a length of 40 ft (13 m) and a weight of 7 tons (6.3 metric tons). These animals had small, sharp teeth and were probably carnivores. Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus, early Permian pelycosaurs (mammal-like reptiles, not dinosaurs), are sometimes confused with Spinosaurus as they also had sail-like back spines.

Not all of the fearsome dinosaurian predators or theropods were enormous. Deinonychus, for example, was an Early Cretaceous dinosaur that grew to about 10 ft (3 m) and weighed around 220 lb (100 kg). Deinonychus was one of the so-called running lizards, which were fast, agile predators that likely hunted in packs. As a result, Deinonychus was probably a fearsome predator of animals much larger than itself. Deinonychus had one of its hind claws enlarged into a sharp, sickle-like, slashing weapon, which was wielded by jumping on its prey and then kicking, slashing, and disemboweling the victim. The scientific name of Deinonychus is derived from the Greek words for terrible claw.

The most infamous small theropod is Velociraptor, or “ swift plunderer, ” a 6-ft-long (2-m-long) animal of the Late Cretaceous. Restorations of this fearsome, highly intelligent, pack-hunting, killing machine were used in the movie Jurassic Park.

Oviraptosaurs (egg-stealing reptiles) were relatively small, probably highly intelligent theropods that were fast-running hunters of small animals, and some are believed to have also been specialized predators of the nests of other dinosaurs. The best known of these animals is Late Cretaceous Oviraptor. Ingenia, a somewhat smaller oviraptorsaur, was about 6 ft (2 m) long, weighed about 55 lb (25 kg), and also lived during the Late Cretaceous. Microvenator of the early Cretaceous was less than 3 ft (1 m) long and weighed about 12 lb (6 kg).

Herbivorous dinosaurs

The sauropods were a group of large saurischian herbivores that included the world ’ s largest-ever terrestrial animals. This group rumbled along on four, enormous, pillar-like, roughly equal-sized legs, with a long tail trailing behind. Sauropods also had very long necks, and their heads were relatively small, at least in comparison with the overall mass of these immense animals. The teeth were peglike and were mostly used for grazing, rather than for chewing their diet of plant matter. Digestion was probably aided by large stones in an enormous gizzard, in much the same way that modern, seed-eating birds grind their food. The sauropods were most abundant during the Late Jurassic. They declined afterwards and were replaced as dominant herbivores by different types of dinosaurs, especially the hadrosaurs.

Apatosaurus was a large sauropod that lived during the Late Jurassic and reached a length of 65 ft (20 m) and a weight of 30 tons (27 metric tons). Diplodocus was a related animal of the Late Jurassic, but it was much longer in its overall body shape. A remarkably complete skeleton of Diplodocus was found that was 90 ft (27 m) long overall, with a 25 ft (8 m) neck and a 45 ft (14 m) tail, and an estimated body weight of 11 tons (10 metric tons). In comparison, the stouter-bodied Apatosaurus was slightly shorter but considerably heavier. Brachiosaurus also lived during the Late Jurassic and was an even bigger herbivore, with a length as great as 100 ft (30 m) and an astonishing weight that may have reached 80 tons (73 metric tons), although conservative estimates are closer to 55 tons (50 metric tons). Supersaurus and Ultrasaurus were similarly large. Seismosaurus may have been longer than 160 ft (50 m), and Argentinosaurus (recently discovered in Patagonia, South America) may set a new weight record of 100 tons (91 metric tons).

Stegosaurus was a 30 ft long (9 m long), Late Jurassic tetrapod with a distinctive row of triangular, erect, bony plates running along its back. These may have been used to regulate heat. Stegosaurus had sharp-spiked projections at the end of its tail, which were lashed at predators as a means of defense. Dacentrurus was a 13-ft-long (4-m-long), Jurassic-age animal related to Stegosaurus, but it had a double row of large spikes along the entire top of its body, from the end of the tail to the back of the head.

The ceratopsians were various types of “ horned ” dinosaurs. Triceratops was a three-horned dinosaur and was as long as 33 ft (10 m) and weighed 6 tons (5.4 metric tons). Triceratops lived in the late Cretaceous, and it had a large bony shield behind the head with three horns projecting from the forehead and face, which were used as defensive weapons. Anchiceratops was a 7-ton (6.3-metric-ton) animal that lived somewhat later. It was one of the last of the dinosaurs and became extinct 66 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period. There were also rhinoceros-like, single-horned dinosaurs, such as the 20-ft-long (6-m-long), 2-ton (1.8-metric-ton) Centrosaurus of the late Cretaceous. Fossilized skeletons of this animal have been found in groups, suggesting that it was a herding dinosaur. The horned dinosaurs were herbivores, and they had parrot-like beaks useful for eating vegetation.

Ankylosaurus was a late Cretaceous animal that was as long as 36 ft (11 m) and weighed 5 tons (4.5 metric tons). Ankylosaurus was a stout, short-legged, lumbering herbivore. This animal had very heavy and spiky body armor and a large bony club at the end of its tail that was used to defend itself against predators.

The duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs included many herbivorous species of the Cretaceous period. Hadrosaurs are sometimes divided into groups based on aspects of their head structure; they could have a flattish head, a solid crest on the top of their head, or an unusual, hollow crest. Hadrosaurs were the most successful of the late Cretaceous dinosaurs in terms of their relative abundance and wide distribution.

Hadrosaurs apparently were social animals; they lived in herds for at least part of the year and migrated seasonally in some places. Hadrosaurs appear to have nested communally, incubated their eggs, and brooded their young. Hadrosaurs had large hind legs and could walk on all four legs or bipedally if more speed was required; these animals were probably very fast runners.

Hadrosaurus was a 5-ton (4.5-metric-ton), late Cretaceous animal and was the first dinosaur to be discovered and named in North America — in 1858 from fossils found in New Jersey. Corythosaurus was a 36 ft-long (11 m-long), 4 ton (3.6 metric ton), Late Cretaceous herbivore that had a large, hollow, helmet-like crest on the top of its head. Parasaurolophus of the late Cretaceous was similar in size, but it had a curved, hollow crest that swept back as far as 10 ft (3 m) from the back of the head. It has been suggested that this exaggerated helmet may have worked like a snorkel when this animal was feeding underwater on aquatic plants; however, more likely uses of the swept-back helmet were in species recognition and resonating the loud sounds made by these hadrosaurs. Edmontosaurus was a large, non-helmeted hadrosaur that lived in the Great Plains during the late Cretaceous and was as long as 40 ft (13 m) and weighed 3 tons (2.7 metric tons). Anatosaurus was a 3 ton (2.7 metric-ton) hadrosaur that lived as recently as 66 million years ago and was among the last of the dinosaurs to become extinct. The hadrosaurs probably were a favorite prey for some of the large theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex.

Other extinct orders of Mesozoic-age reptiles

Several other orders of large reptiles lived at the same time as the dinosaurs and are also now extinct. The pterosaurs (order Pterosauria) were large, flying reptiles that lived from the late Triassic to the late Cretaceous. Some species of pterosaurs had wingspans as great as 40 ft (12 m), much wider than any other flying animal has ever managed to achieve. Functional biologists studying the superficially awkward designs of these animals have long wondered how they flew. Some species of pterosaurs are thought to have fed on fish, which were scooped up as the pterosaur glided just above the water surface.

The ichthyosaurs (Ichthyosauria), plesiosaurs (Plesiosauria), and mosasaurs (Mososauria) were orders of carnivorous marine reptiles that became extinct in the Late Cretaceous. The ichthyosaurs were shark-like in form, except that their vertebral column extended into the lower part of their caudal (or tail) fin, rather than into the upper part like the sharks. Of course, ichthyosaurs also had well-developed, bony skeletons, whereas sharks have a skeleton composed entirely of cartilage rather than bone. The plesiosaurs were large animals reaching a length as great as 45 ft (14 m). These marine reptiles had paddle-shaped limbs, and some species had very long necks. Mosasaurs were large lizards that had fin-shaped limbs and looked something like a cross between a crocodile and an eel; but they grew to lengths of more than 30 ft (9 m).

Theories about the extinction of dinosaurs

There are many theories about what caused the extinction of the last of the dinosaurs, which occurred at the end of the Cretaceous period, about 66 million years ago. Some of the more interesting ideas include: the intolerance of these animals to rapid climate change, the emergence of new species of dominant plants that contained toxic chemicals the herbivorous dinosaurs could not tolerate, an inability to compete successfully with the rapidly evolving mammals, insatiable destruction of dinosaur nests and eggs by mammalian predators, and widespread disease to which dinosaurs were not able to develop immunity. All of these hypotheses

KEY TERMS

Adaptive radiation — An evolutionary phenomenon in which a single, relatively uniform population gives rise to numerous, reproductively isolated species. Adaptive radiation occurs in response to natural selection, in environments in which there are diverse ecological opportunities, and little competition to filling them.

Homoiothermic — Refers to “ warm-blooded ” animals that regulate their body temperature independently of the ambient, environmental temperature.

Mass extinction — The extinction of an unusually large number of species in a geologically short period of time.

Poikilothermic — Refers to animals that do not have a physiological mechanism to control their internal body temperature and so adopt the temperature of the ambient environment. “ Cold-blooded ” animals.

are interesting, but the supporting evidence for any one of them is not enough to convince most paleontologists.

Interestingly, at the time of the extinction of the last of the dinosaurs, there were also apparently mass extinctions of other groups of organisms. These included the reptilian order Pterosauria, along with many groups of plants and invertebrates. In total, perhaps three quarters of all species and one half of all genera may have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. A popular hypothesis for the cause of this catastrophic, biological event was the impact of a meteor hitting Earth. The impact of an estimated 6 mi-w > — or were not caused solely by — the shorter-term effects of a rogue meteorite.

Dinosaurs share many anatomical characteristics with Aves, the birds, a group that is now known to have evolved from a dinosaur ancestor. In fact, there are excellent fossil remains of evolutionary links between birds and dinosaurs. The 3 ft-long (1 m-long), Late Jurassic fossil organism Archaeopteryx looked remarkably like Compsognathus but had a feathered body and could fly or gl > — as they still are by birds, including flightless birds — and only later were used for flight. Moreover, some of the living, flightless birds such as emus and ostriches and recently extinct birds such as elephant birds and moas bear a remarkable resemblance to certain types of dinosaurs. Because of the apparent continuity of anatomical characteristics between dinosaurs and birds, some paleontologists believe that the dinosaurs did not actually become extinct. Instead, the dinosaur lineage survives today in a substantially modified form as the group Aves, the birds.

Resources

BOOKS

Fastovsky, David E., et al. The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Rogers, Kristina and Jeffrey Wilson. The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005.

Tidwell, Virginia and Kenneth Carpenter. Thunder-lizards: The Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Weishampel, David B., et al., eds. The Dinosauria. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.

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Dinosaur

Dinosaur

Dinosaurs are a group of now-extinct, terrestrial reptiles in the order Dinosauria that lived from about 225 million years ago to 66 million years ago, during the Mesozoic era. Species of dinosaurs ranged from chicken-sized creatures such as the 2 lb (1 kg) predator Compsognathus to colossal, herbivorous animals known as «sauropods,» which were larger than any terrestrial animals that lived before or since. Some dinosaurs were enormous, awesomely fierce predators, while others were mild-mannered herbivores, or plant eaters, that reached an immense size. The word «dinosaur» is derived from two Greek words, meaning «terrible lizard.» The term refers to some of the huge and awesome predatory dinosaurs—the first of these extinct reptiles to be discovered that were initially thought to be lizard-like in appearance and biology . But Richard Owen (1804-1892), the British expert in comparative anatomy , also coined the word in awe of the complexity of this wide variety of creatures that lived so long ago and yet were so well-adapted to their world.

Dinosaurs were remarkable and impressive animals but are rather difficult to define as a zoological group. They were terrestrial animals that had upright legs, rather than legs that sprawled outward from the body. Their skulls had two temporal openings on each side (in addition to the opening for the eyes), as well as other common and distinctive features. The dinosaurs were distinguished from other animals, however, by distinctive aspects of their behavior , physiology , and ecological relationships. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about these traits because we can only learn about dinosaurs using their fossil traces, which are rare and incomplete. It is clear from the available evidence that some species of dinosaurs were large predators, others were immense herbivores, and still others were smaller predators, herbivores, or scavengers. Sufficient information is available to allow paleontologists to assign scientific names to many of these dinosaurs and to speculate about their evolutionary and ecological relationships.

Although they are now extinct, the dinosaurs were among the most successful large animals ever to live on Earth . The dinosaurs arose during the interval of geologic time known as the Mesozoic (middle life) era, often called the «golden age of reptiles» or «the age of dinosaurs.» Radiometric dating of volcanic rocks associated with dinosaur fossils suggests they first evolved 225 million years ago, during the late Triassic Period and became extinct 66 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Dinosaurs lived for about 160 million years and were the dominant terrestrial animals on Earth throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods—a span of over 100 million years.

Interestingly, mammal-like animals co-existed almost continuously with the dinosaurs and obviously prospered after the last of the dinosaurs became extinct. Although they co-existed in time with dinosaurs, mammals were clearly subordinate to these reptiles. It was not until the disappearance of the last dinosaurs that an adaptive radiation of larger species of mammals occurred, and they then became the dominant large animals on Earth.

It is not known exactly what caused the last dinosaurs to become extinct. It must be stressed, however, that dinosaurs were remarkably successful animals. These creatures were dominant on Earth for an enormously longer length of time than the few tens of thousands of years that humans have been a commanding species.

Biology of dinosaurs

The distinguishing characteristics of the dinosaurs include the structure of their skull and other bones. Dinosaurs typically had 25 vertebrae, plus three vertebrae that were fused to form their pelvic bones. The dinosaurs displayed an enormous range of forms and functions, however, and they filled a wide array of ecological niches. Some of the dinosaurs were, in fact, quite bizarre in their shape and, undoubtedly, their behavior.

The smallest dinosaurs were chicken-like carnivores that were only about 1 ft (30 cm) long and weighed 5-6 lb (2-3 kg). The largest dinosaurs reached a length of over 100 ft (30 m) and weighed 80 tons (73 metric tons) or more—more than any other terrestrial animal has ever achieved. The largest blue whales can weigh more than this, about 110 tons (100 metric tons), representing the largest animals ever to occur on Earth. The weight of these aquatic animals is partially buoyed by the water that they live in; whales do not have to fully support their immense weight against the forces of gravity, as the dinosaurs did. When compared with the largest living land animal, the African elephant , which weighs as much as 7.5 tons (6.8 metric tons), the large species of dinosaurs were enormous creatures.

Most species of dinosaurs had long tails and long necks, but this was not the case for all species. Most of the dinosaurs walked on all four legs, although some species were bipedal, using only their rear legs for locomotion. Their forelegs were greatly reduced in size and probably were used only for grasping. The tetrapods that walked on four legs were all peaceful herbivores. In contrast, many of the bipedal dinosaurs were fast-running predators.

The teeth of dinosaur species were highly diverse. Many species were exclusively herbivorous, and their teeth were correspondingly adapted for cutting and grinding vegetation. Other dinosaurs were fierce predators, and their teeth were shaped like serrated knives, which seized and stabbed their prey and cut it into smaller pieces that could be swallowed whole.

Until recently, it was widely believed that dinosaurs were rather stupid, slow-moving, cold-blooded (or poikilothermic) creatures. Some scientists now believe, however, that dinosaurs were intelligent, social, quick-moving, and probably warm-blooded (or homoiothermic) animals. This is a controversial topic, and scientific consensus has not been reached on whether or not some of the dinosaurs were able to regulate their body temperature by producing heat through metabolic reactions. It is absolutely undeniable that dinosaurs were extremely capable animals. This should not be a surprise to us, considering the remarkable evolutionary successes that they attained.

Fossils and other evidence of the dinosaurs

Humans never co-existed with dinosaurs, yet a surprising amount is known about these remarkable reptiles. Evidence about the existence and nature of dinosaurs is entirely indirect; it has been gleaned from fossilized traces that these animals left in sediment deposits.

The first indications suggesting the existence of the huge, extinct creatures that we now know as dinosaurs were traces of their ancient footprints in sedimentary rocks. Dinosaurs left their footprints in soft mud as they moved along marine shores or riverbanks. That mud was subsequently covered over as a new layer of sediment accumulated, and it later solidified into rock. Under very rare circumstances, this process preserved traces of the footprints of dinosaurs. Interestingly, the footprints were initially attributed to giant birds because of their superficial resemblance to tracks made by the largest of the living birds, such as the ostrich and emu.

The first fossilized skeletal remains to be identified as those of giant, extinct reptiles were discovered by miners in western Europe . These first discoveries were initially presumed to be astonishingly gigantic, extinct lizards. Several naturalists recognized substantial anatomical differences between the fossil bones and those of living reptiles, however, and so the dinosaurs were «discovered.» The first of these finds consisted of bones of a 35-50 ft (10-15 m) long carnivore named Megalosaurus; this was the first dinosaur to be named scientifically. A large herbivore named Iguanodon was found at about the same time in sedimentary rocks in mines in England, Belgium, and France.

Discoveries of fantastic, extinct mega-reptiles in Europe were soon followed by even more exciting finds of dinosaur fossils in North America and elsewhere. These events captured the fascination of both naturalists and the general public. Museums started to develop extraordinary displays of re-assembled dinosaur skeletons, and artists prepared equally extraordinary depictions of dinosaurs and their hypothesized appearances and habitats.

This initial hey-day of dinosaur fossil discoveries occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During this period, many of the most important finds were made by North American paleontologists who discovered and began to mine rich deposits of fossils in the prairies. There was intense scientific interest in these American discoveries of fossilized bones of gargantuan, seemingly preposterous animals, such as the awesome predator Tyrannosaurus and the immense herbivore Apatosaurus (initially known as Brontosaurus). Unfortunately, the excitement and scientific frenzy led to competition among some of the paleontologists, who wanted to be known for discovering the biggest, fiercest, or weirdest dinosaurs. The most famous rivals were two American scientists, Othniel C. Marsh and Edwin Drinker Cope.

Other famous discoveries of fossilized dinosaur bones were made in the Gobi Desert of eastern Asia . Some of those finds include nests with eggs that contain fossilized embryos used to study dinosaur development. Some nests contain hatchlings, suggesting that dinosaur parents cared for their young. In addition, the clustering of the nests of some dinosaurs suggests social behavior including communal nesting, possibly for mutual protection against marauding predatory dinosaurs. In the valley of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, the skeleton of an adult oviraptor was found hunched over her nest of eggs, just like any incubating bird.

A find of dinosaur eggs in an Argentinian desert in 1998 is one of the largest collections ever discovered. It consists of hundreds of 6 in (15 cm) eggs of Titanosaurs, 45 ft (13.7 m) long relatives of the Brontosaurus. The eggs were laid 70-90 million years ago, and skeletons of about 36 15-in (38-cm) long babies were also found in the mudstone. The paleontologists named the site «Auca Maheuvo,» after a local volcano and the Spanish words for «more eggs.» They hope to assemble an «ontological series» of eggs and embryos from the fossils to show all the stages of baby dinosaur development. Other scientists have speculated that this type of dinosaur gave birth to live young, and the discovery of the egg bonanza resolves that question.

Fossilized dinosaur bones have been discovered on all continents. Discoveries of fossils in the Arctic and in Antarctica suggest that the climate was much warmer when dinosaurs roamed Earth. It is also likely that polar dinosaurs were migratory, probably traveling to high latitudes to feed and breed during the summer and returning to lower latitudes during the winter. These migrations may have occurred mostly in response to the lack of sunlight during the long polar winters, rather than the cooler temperatures.

Although the most important fossil records of dinosaurs involve their bones, there is other evidence as well. In addition to footprints, eggs, and nests, there have also been finds of imprints of dinosaur skin, feces (known as coprolites), rounded gizzard stones (known as gastroliths), and even possible stomach contents. Fossilized imprints of feathers associated with dinosaurs called Sinosauropteryx and Protarchaeiopteryx found in the Liaoning Province of China show not only long flight and tail feathers but downy under feathers. In addition, fossilized plant remains are sometimes associated with deposits of dinosaur fossils, and these can be used to infer something about the habitats of these animals. Inferences can also be based on the geological context of the locations of fossils, such as their proximity to ocean shores or geographical position for polar dinosaurs. These types of information have been studied and used to infer the shape, physiology, behavior, and ecological relationships of extinct dinosaurs.

Major groups of dinosaurs

There is only incomplete knowledge of the evolutionary relationships of dinosaurs with each other and with other major groups of reptiles. This results from the fact that dinosaurs, like any other extinct organism , can only be studied through their fossilized remains, which are often rare and fragmentary. Nevertheless, some dinosaur species bear clear resemblances to each other but are also obviously distinct from certain other dinosaurs.

The dinosaurs evolved from a group of early reptiles known as thecodonts, which arose during the Permian period (290-250 million years ago) and were dominant throughout the Triassic (250-208 million years ago). It appears that two major groups of dinosaurs evolved from the thecodonts, the ornithischian (bird hips) dinosaurs and the saurischian (lizard hips) dinosaurs. These two groups are distinguished largely on the basis of the anatomical structure of their pelvic or hip bones.

Both of these dinosaur lineages originated at about the same time. Both evolved into many species that were ecologically important and persisted until about 66 million years ago. Both groups included quadrupeds that walked on all four legs, as well as bipeds that walked erect on their much-larger hind legs. All of the ornithischians had bird-like beaks on their lower jaws and all were herbivores. Most of the carnivorous, or predatory, dinosaurs were saurischians, as were some of the herbivorous species. Interestingly, despite some resemblance between ornithischian dinosaur and bird physiology, it appears that the first birds actually evolved from saurischians.

Carnivorous dinosaurs

The carnosaurs were a group of saurischian predators, or theropods, that grew large and had enormous hind limbs but tiny fore limbs. Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest carnivore that has ever stalked Earth; its scientific name is derived from Greek words for «tyrant reptile king.» This fearsome, bipedal predator of the Late Cretaceous could grow to a length of 45 ft (14 m) and may have weighed as much as 9 tons (8.2 metric tons). Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex) had a massive head and a mouth full of about 60 dagger-shaped, 6-in-long (15-cm-long), very sharp, serrated teeth, which were renewed throughout the life of the animal. This predator probably ran in a lumbering fashion using its powerful hind legs, which may also have been wielded as sharp-clawed, kicking weapons. It is thought that T. rex may have initially attacked its prey with powerful head-butts and then torn the animal apart with its enormous, 3 ft long (1 m long) jaws. Alternatively, T. rex may have been a scavenger of dead dinosaurs. The relatively tiny fore legs of T. rex probably only had little use. The long and heavy tail of T. rex was used as a counter-balance for the animal while it was running and as a stabilizing prop while it was standing.

Albertosaurus was also a large theropod of the Late Cretaceous. Albertosaurus was similar to Tyrannosaurus, but it was a less massively built animal at about 25 ft (8 m) long and 2 tons (1.8 metric tons) in weight. Albertosaurus probably moved considerably faster than Tyrannosaurus.

Allosaurus was a gigantic, bipedal predator of the Late Jurassic. Allosaurus could grow to a length of 36 ft (12 m) and a weight of 2 tons (1.8 metric tons). The jaws of Allosaurus were loosely hinged, and they could detach to swallow large chunks of prey.

Spinosaurus was a «fin-back» (or «sail-back») dinosaur of the Late Cretaceous period that was distantly related to Allosaurus. Spinosaurus had long, erect, skin-covered, bony projections from its vertebrae that may have been used to regulate body temperature or perhaps for behavioral displays to impress others or attract a mate. Spinosaurus could have achieved a length of 40 ft (13 m) and a weight of 7 tons (6.3 metric tons). These animals had small, sharp teeth and were probably carnivores. Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus, early Permian pelycosaurs (mammal-like reptiles, not dinosaurs), are sometimes confused with Spinosaurus as they also had sail-like back spines.

Not all of the fearsome dinosaurian predators or theropods were enormous. Deinonychus, for example, was an Early Cretaceous dinosaur that grew to about 10 ft (3 m) and weighed around 220 lb (100 kg). Deinonychus was one of the so-called running lizards, which were fast, agile predators that likely hunted in packs. As a result, Deinonychus was probably a fearsome predator of animals much larger than itself. Deinonychus had one of its hind claws enlarged into a sharp, sickle-like, slashing weapon, which was wielded by jumping on its prey and then kicking, slashing, and disemboweling the victim. The scientific name of Deinonychus is derived from the Greek words for terrible claw.

The most infamous small theropod is Velociraptor, or «swift plunderer,» a 6-ft-long (2-m-long) animal of the Late Cretaceous. Restorations of this fearsome, highly intelligent, pack-hunting, killing machine were used in the movie Jurassic Park.

Oviraptosaurs (egg-stealing reptiles) were relatively small, probably highly intelligent theropods that were fast-running hunters of small animals, and some are believed to have also been specialized predators of the nests of other dinosaurs. The best known of these animals is Late Cretaceous Oviraptor. Ingenia, a somewhat smaller oviraptorsaur, was about 6 ft (2 m) long, weighed about 55 lb (25 kg), and also lived during the Late Cretaceous. Microvenator of the early Cretaceous was less than 3 ft (1 m) long and weighed about 12 lb (6 kg).

Herbivorous dinosaurs

The sauropods were a group of large saurischian herbivores that included the world’s largest-ever terrestrial animals. This group rumbled along on four, enormous, pillar-like, roughly equal-sized legs, with a long tail trailing behind. Sauropods also had very long necks, and their heads were relatively small, at least in comparison with the overall mass of these immense animals. The teeth were peg-like and were mostly used for grazing, rather than for chewing their diet of plant matter . Digestion was probably aided by large stones in an enormous gizzard, in much the same way that modern, seed-eating birds grind their food. The sauropods were most abundant during the Late Jurassic. They declined afterwards and were replaced as dominant herbivores by different types of dinosaurs, especially the hadrosaurs.

Apatosaurus (previously known as Brontosaurus or the ground-shaking «thunder lizard») was a large sauropod that lived during the Late Jurassic and reached a length of 65 ft (20 m) and a weight of 30 tons (27 metric tons). Diplodocus was a related animal of the Late Jurassic, but it was much longer in its overall body shape. A remarkably complete skeleton of Diplodocus was found that was 90 ft (27 m) long overall, with a 25 ft (8 m) neck and a 45 ft (14 m) tail, and an estimated body weight of 11 tons (10 metric tons). In comparison, the stouter-bodied Apatosaurus was slightly shorter but considerably heavier. Brachiosaurus also lived during the Late Jurassic and was an even bigger herbivore, with a length as great as 100 ft (30 m) and an astonishing weight that may have reached 80 tons (73 metric tons), although conservative estimates are closer to 55 tons (50 metric tons). Supersaurus and Ultrasaurus were similarly large. Seismosaurus may have been longer than 160 ft (50 m), and Argentinosaurus (recently discovered in Patagonia, South America ) may set a new weight record of 100 tons (91 metric tons).

Stegosaurus was a 30 ft long (9 m long), Late Jurassic tetrapod with a distinctive row of triangular, erect, bony plates running along its back. These may have been used to regulate heat. Stegosaurus had sharp-spiked projections at the end of its tail, which were lashed at predators as a means of defense. Dacentrurus was a 13-ft-long (4-m-long), Jurassic-age animal related to Stegosaurus, but it had a double row of large spikes along the entire top of its body, from the end of the tail to the back of the head.

The ceratopsians were various types of «horned» dinosaurs. Triceratops was a three-horned dinosaur and was as long as 33 ft (10 m) and weighed 6 tons (5.4 metric tons). Triceratops lived in the late Cretaceous, and it had a large bony shield behind the head with three horns projecting from the forehead and face, which were used as defensive weapons. Anchiceratops was a 7-ton (6.3-metric-ton) animal that lived somewhat later. It was one of the last of the dinosaurs and became extinct 66 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period. There were also rhinoceros-like, single-horned dinosaurs, such as the 20-ft-long (6-m-long), 2-ton (1.8-metric-ton) Centrosaurus of the late Cretaceous. Fossilized skeletons of this animal have been found in groups, suggesting that it was a herding dinosaur. The horned dinosaurs were herbivores, and they had parrot-like beaks useful for eating vegetation.

Ankylosaurus was a late Cretaceous animal that was as long as 36 ft (11 m) and weighed 5 tons (4.5 metric tons). Ankylosaurus was a stout, short-legged, lumbering herbivore. This animal had very heavy and spiky body armor and a large bony club at the end of its tail that was used to defend itself against predators.

The duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs included many herbivorous species of the Cretaceous period. Hadrosaurs are sometimes divided into groups based on aspects of their head structure; they could have a flattish head, a solid crest on the top of their head, or an unusual, hollow crest. Hadrosaurs were the most successful of the late Cretaceous dinosaurs in terms of their relative abundance and wide distribution.

Hadrosaurs apparently were social animals; they lived in herds for at least part of the year and migrated seasonally in some places. Hadrosaurs appear to have nested communally, incubated their eggs, and brooded their young. Hadrosaurs had large hind legs and could walk on all four legs or bipedally if more speed was required—these animals were probably very fast runners.

Hadrosaurus was a 5-ton (4.5-metric-ton), late Cretaceous animal and was the first dinosaur to be discovered and named in North America-in 1858 from fossils found in New Jersey. Corythosaurus was a 36 ft-long (11 m-long), 4 ton (3.6 metric ton), Late Cretaceous herbivore that had a large, hollow, helmet-like crest on the top of its head. Parasaurolophus of the late Cretaceous was similar in size, but it had a curved, hollow crest that swept back as far as 10 ft (3 m) from the back of the head. It has been suggested that this exaggerated helmet may have worked like a snorkel when this animal was feeding underwater on aquatic plants; however, more likely uses of the sweptback helmet were in species recognition and resonating the loud sounds made by these hadrosaurs. Edmontosaurus was a large, non-helmeted hadrosaur that lived in the Great Plains during the late Cretaceous and was as long as 40 ft (13 m) and weighed 3 tons (2.7 metric tons). Anatosaurus was a 3 ton (2.7 metric-ton) hadrosaur that lived as recently as 66 million years ago and was among the last of the dinosaurs to become extinct. The hadrosaurs probably were a favorite prey for some of the large theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex.

Other extinct orders of Mesozoic-age reptiles

Several other orders of large reptiles lived at the same time as the dinosaurs and are also now extinct. The pterosaurs (order Pterosauria) were large, flying reptiles that lived from the late Triassic to the late Cretaceous. Some species of pterosaurs had wingspans as great as 40 ft (12 m), much wider than any other flying animal has ever managed to achieve. Functional biologists studying the superficially awkward designs of these animals have long wondered how they flew. Some species of pterosaurs are thought to have fed on fish , which were scooped up as the pterosaur glided just above the water surface.

The ichthyosaurs (Ichthyosauria), plesiosaurs (Plesiosauria), and mosasaurs (Mososauria) were orders of carnivorous marine reptiles that became extinct in the Late Cretaceous. The ichthyosaurs were shark-like in form, except that their vertebral column extended into the lower part of their caudal (or tail) fin, rather than into the upper part like the sharks . Of course, ichthyosaurs also had well-developed, bony skeletons, whereas sharks have a skeleton composed entirely of cartilage rather than bone. The plesiosaurs were large animals reaching a length as great as 45 ft (14 m). These marine reptiles had paddle-shaped limbs, and some species had very long necks. Mosasaurs were large lizards that had fin-shaped limbs and looked something like a cross between a crocodile and an eel; but they grew to lengths of more than 30 ft (9 m).

Theories about the extinction of dinosaurs

There are many theories about what caused the extinction of the last of the dinosaurs, which occurred at the end of the Cretaceous period, about 66 million years ago. Some of the more interesting ideas include: the intolerance of these animals to rapid climate change, the emergence of new species of dominant plants that contained toxic chemicals the herbivorous dinosaurs could not tolerate, an inability to compete successfully with the rapidly evolving mammals, insatiable destruction of dinosaur nests and eggs by mammalian predators, and widespread disease to which dinosaurs were not able to develop immunity. All of these hypotheses are interesting, but the supporting evidence for any one of them is not enough to convince most paleontologists.

Interestingly, at the time of the extinction of the last of the dinosaurs, there were also apparently mass extinctions of other groups of organisms. These included the reptilian order Pterosauria, along with many groups of plants and invertebrates . In total, perhaps three quarters of all species and one half of all genera may have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. A popular hypothesis for the cause of this catastrophic, biological event was the impact of a meteor hitting Earth. The impact of an estimated 6 mi-wide (10 km-wide) meteorite could have spewed an enormous quantity of fine dust into the atmosphere, which could have caused climate changes that most large animals and other organisms could not tolerate. As with the other theories about the end of the dinosaurs, this one is controversial. Many scientists believe the extinctions of the last dinosaurs were more gradual and were not caused by the shorter-term effects of a rogue meteorite.

Another interesting concept concerns the fact that dinosaurs share many anatomical characteristics with Aves, the birds, a group that clearly evolved from a dinosaur ancestor. In fact, there are excellent fossil remains of an evolutionary link between birds and dinosaurs. The 3 ft-long (1 m-long), Late Jurassic fossil organism Archaeopteryx looked remarkably like Compsognathus but had a feathered body and could fly or glide. Moreover, some of the living, flightless birds such as emus and ostriches and recently extinct birds such as elephant birds and moas bear a remarkable resemblance to certain types of dinosaurs. Because of the apparent continuity of anatomical characteristics between dinosaurs and birds, some paleontologists believe that the dinosaurs did not actually become extinct. Instead, the dinosaur lineage survives today in a substantially modified form, as the group Aves, the birds.

Resources

books

Carpenter, K., and P.J. Currie. Dinosaur Systematics. Approaches and Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Cowen, R. History of Life. London: Blackwell Scientific Publishing, 1995.

Palmer, Douglas. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to over 500 Species. New York: Todtri, 2002.

Prothero, Donald R. Bringing Fossils To Life: An IntroductionTo Paleobiology. Columbus: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 1997.

Weishampel, D.B., ed. The Dinosauria. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990.

KEY TERMS

—An evolutionary phenomenon in which a single, relatively uniform population gives rise to numerous, reproductively isolated species. Adaptive radiation occurs in response to natural selection, in environments in which there are diverse ecological opportunities, and little competition to filling them.

—Refers to «warm-blooded» animals that regulate their body temperature independently of the ambient, environmental temperature.

—The extinction of an unusually large number of species in a geologically short period of time.

—Refers to animals that do not have a physiological mechanism to control their internal body temperature and so adopt the temperature of the ambient environment. «Cold-blooded» animals.

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Динозавр T-Rex из Google Chrome, играть онлайн

Мини игра с прыгающим динозавром первый раз появилась в браузере Google Chrome Canary. Страница с игрой открывалась когда у вас прерывалось соединение с интернетом. На странице динозавр ничего не делает, просто стоит. Чтобы начать играть, нужно нажать на «пробел». Поэтому не все пользователи знают об этой игре.

Нажмите по экрану (для мобильных устройств) или на «пробел», чтобы начать игру.
Если игра не работает, откройте её в браузере Google Chrome.

Правила игры

Для прыжка динозавром нажмите пробел или щелкните по экрану если у вас мобильное устройство, например телефон или планшет.
После начала игры, динозавр начнет бежать. Чтобы перепрыгнуть кактусы вам нужно еще раз нажать на «пробел».
Скорость игры будет постепенно увеличиваться, а перепрыгивать кактусы все сложнее. Когда вы наберете 400 очков, в игре появятся летающие динозавры — птеродактили.
Их можно тоже перепрыгнуть или, если вы играете с компьютера, вы можете пригнуться нажав на стрелочку вниз.
Игра бесконечная. Не пытайтесь пройти её до конца.

Динозавра зовут T-Rex, это название единственного вида тиранозавров — Tyrannosaurus rex. Rex от латинского — царь. Странно что в игре он прыгает через кактусы и птеродактилей, хотя этот вид являлся одним из самых сильных.

Dinosaurs

Динозавры (ужасные ящеры). Ни один вид животных, живущих или живших когда либо на нашей прекрасной планете не вызыват у нас такого интереса как динозавры.

Ричард Оуэн — английский зоолог. Первым ввел понятие «Динозавр»

Миллионы лет назад, задолго до появления человека на Земле, динозавры властвовали на планете.
Думаем, что Вы согласитесь, динозавры — самые удивительные из всех существ живших на нашей планете. Появившиеся в конце триасового периода, примерно за 225 миллионов лет до появления человека, динозавры вышли на лидирующие позиции и доминировали на земле на протяжении 160 миллионов лет.
Первые окаменелые останки динозавров были обнаружены в тридцатых годах 19-го столетия. Но этой находке не было уделено особого внимания. Только спустя годы, после обнаружения других окаменелостей, стало ясно, что эти останки принадлежат доисторическим животным, и что эти находки являются важнейшим археологическим открытием. В 1854 году скульптор Бенджамин Уотерхаус Хокинс по модели доктора Ричарда Оуэна создал первую скульптуру динозавра в натуральную величину.

После этого палеонтология начала развиваться как наука. В середине девятнадцатого века английским зоологом Р.Оуэном, после исследования каменных находок, было введено понятие «Динозавр», что в переводе означает «Ужасный ящер».

Появление динозавров.

Первые динозавры появились в триасовый период примерно 230 млн.л.н в результате эволюционных изменений. Первые динозавры были хищниками и принадлежали к группе теропод. Затем и растительноядные рептилии мутировали и образовали первую группу растительноядных динозавров — прозуаропод.

Многообразие видов динозавров.

Постепенно, к концу триасового периода количество видов динозавров увеличилось, но все еще существовали древние формы животных. По суше бродили в поисках пиши растительноядные и хищные динозавры. В море и воздухе так же появились новые виды. В воздух взмыли первые птерозавры, а морские глубины скрывали гигантских ихтиозавров.
В юрский период динозавры уверенно заняли все экологические ниши.Динозавры стали доминирующим видом животных именно в юрский период. Летающие ящеры царили в небе, а гигантские плиозавры наводили ужас на обитателей морских глубин.
Именно конец юрского периода подарил земле таких известных динозавров как: аллозавр, диплодок и стегозавр.
В меловой период многообразие видов динозавров достигло максимума. Появление новых видов растений способствовало увеличению количества растительноядных динозавров, которые были широко распространены в меловой период. Причудливые формы динозавров мелового периода поражают воображение. Например бронированный, как танк анкилозавр или обладатель гигантских когтей теризинозавр. Широко известный трехрогий динозавр — трицератопс. Ну и конечно же вселяющий ужас всем живым существам того времени — тираннозавр и его менее известный, но не менее опасный сородич — тарбозавр.

Самые известные динозавры

Благодаря многочисленным фильмам, тиранозавр приобрел широчайшую известность. Возможно, тиранозавр самый известный из динозавров. Его изображение можно увидеть на рекламе некоторых фирм или товаров. Для многих людей тираннозавр это символ несокрушимой мощии. Но так ли это было на самом деле?
узнать больше о тираннозавре .

Динозавр Тираннозавр

Аллозавр — один из самых известных и исследованных хищных динозавров юрского периода.
Аллозавр был самым крупным сухопутным хищным ящером своего времени и один из самых свирепых и опасных динозавров всей мезозойской эры. Аллозавров еще называют «львами» юрского периода.

Аллозавр был плотоядным хищным динозавром. Его рацион состоял исключительно из мяса других динозавров. Учитывая строение ящера можно с уверенностью предполагать, что он был прекрасным охотником.
узнать больше об аллозавре.

Динозавр Аллозавр

Диплодок обладал по истине гигантскими размерами и известен как один из самых длинных динозавров. С ним мог соперничать сейсмозавр, который достигал в длину 50 метров. Кроме этого диплодок один из самых известных и самых изученных растительноядных динозавров. По достижении определенных размеров у диплодоков не оставалось врагов. И они могли посвятить себя поеданию сочной зелени и размножению.

На закате юрского периода диплодоки были доминирующим видом среди растительноядных динозавров.
узнать больше о диплодоке.

Динозавр Диплодок

Стегозавр — представитель птицетазовых динозавров — тиреофор. Стегозавр — самый крупный представитель группы стегозавров. В его честь получила название эта группа динозавров.
Стегозавра можно безошибочно определить среди всех динозавров. Его характерной чертой являются ромбовидные пластины разного размера. Пластины расположены в два ряда вдоль спины и хвоста в шахматном порядке.

Высота пластин достигала 1м. На хвосте стегозавра имелись 4 мощных заостренных костяных шипа. Длина шипов, по разным данным, была от 60 см до 1м.
узнать больше о стегозавре.

Динозавр Стегозавр

Трицератопс был самым крупным представителем отряда цератопсов (рогатых динозавров). Далеко не каждый из хищных динозавров осмеливался напасть на взрослого трицератопса, а на стадо трицеротопсов не всегда нападал даже грозный тираннозавр. Этот динозавр, по своему строению напоминает современных носорогов, только крупнее. На голове трицератопса распологались три рога: два длинных в области лба динозавра и один ближе к клюву.

Помимо рогов, отличительной чертой трицератопса был большой костяной воротник, который защищал голову и плечи динозавра. Из за своих габаритов, силы и защитных приспособлений трицератопса называют одним из «танков мезозойской эры». Трицератопсы существовали до самого окончания мезозойской эры и были одними из последних динозавров на земле.
узнать больше о стегозавре.

Динозавр Трицератопс

Говорить о том. что птеродактиль был динозавром было бы не совсем верно. Птеродактиль — птерозавр юрского периода. Птерозавры — рептилии приспособившиеся к полету. Птеродактили имели легкие и полые кости скелета, что значительно снижало их массу . Перепончатое крыло птеродактиля тянулось от задней стороны передней конечности к бокам туловища до самых ног.

Птеродактили жили большими колониями и были всеядны. Их рацион в основном состоял из рыбы и падали. Мелкеие же птеродактили питались насекомыми.
узнать больше о птерозавре.

Конец эпохи динозавров Вымирание динозавров обозначило окончание мелового периода и всей мезозойской эры. Несмотря на то, что уже существует несколько гипотез о том, почему динозавры исчезли, до сих пор точная причина вымирания динозавров не определена.
160 миллионов лет! Такой промежуток времени трудно представить. На сколько он велик, например, по сравнению с периодом существования нашей цивилизации, которой всего лишь несколько тысяч лет. А человек существует на Земле не более 2 миллионов лет.
Причины такого интереса к динозаврам огромные размеры, причудливые формы и внезапное исчезновение в момент, казалось бы, расцвета разнообразия видов. Но скорее всего, главной причиной является тот гигантский промежуток времени, который разделяет человека и динозавра. И человеку — доминирующему виду современности хочется больше знать о динозавре — доминировавшем не земле виде и исчезнувшем миллионы лет назад.
А как много мы знаем о динозаврах? О том, какой была планета в их эпоху. Как динозавры появились? Какими они были? Какими были их повадки, как и когда были найдены первые останки динозавров? Сколько видов динозавров известно на сегодняшний день и что стало причиной их вымирания.
На эти и другие вопросы мы постараемся ответить. На страницах нашей энциклопедии динозавров мы постарались собрать и представить вашему вниманию наиболее полную и интересную информацию об этих удивительных существах и окружающем их мире.

Динозавры какими мы их видим:

Для современного человека динозавр уже стал обыденным явлением. Мы видим динозавров в кино, в мультфильмах в научно-популярных программах, рекламных роликах и др. С момента введения понятия «динозавр» прошло уже более 150 лет. И хотя мы никогда не сможем увидеть живых динозавров, мы можем воссоздавать их модели. Благодаря постоянному научно-техническому прогрессу качество моделей динозавров растет с каждым годом.
Первые попытки продемонстрировать динозавра на экране были предприняты еще в начале 20го века. Одним из первых фильмов, где был показан динозавр был снят в США в 1914 году и назывался он «Динозавр Герти». И хотя сейчас бы уровень исполнения модели динозавра показался бы смешным (динозавр был мультипликационный), но по тем временам это было очень круто . С тех пор были сняты десятки фильмов про динозавров. Наверное, самыми известными из ник были «Годзила», «Затерянный мир». Ну и конечно же «парк юрского периода».
Нет сомнения в том, что фильмы о динозаврах еще будут сниматься. И качество моделей динозавров будет улучшаться. И возможно, когда-нибудь, благодаря развитию науки, сюжет фильма о динозаврах «Парк юрского периода» не будет таким уж сказочным .

Если вы ищете информацию о динозавре и знаете как он называется, вы можете воспользоваться нашей базой перейдя по кнопке «Динозавры от А до Я».

Все динозавры нашей базы перечислены в разделе «все динозавры» и вы можете найти описание интересующего Вас динозавра.

И еще о динозаврах:

Интересное о динозаврах:

Зубы динозавров

Различные виды динозавров имели свое, не похожее на других, строение и способы питания. Это относится и к их зубам. Острые, как бритва, зазубренные как пила или листовидные — могут многое поведать нам о том как питались их обладатели.
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Динозавры — новая ветвь эволюции.

В триасовый период произошла смена животного мира от палеозоя к мезозою. Интенсивно проходила смена одних животных и растительных форм другими. Некоторые формы животного мира палеозойской эры перешли в мезозойскую. И они существовали на протяжении многих миллионов лет уже в триасе. Но их господство уже окончилось и возникли новые, более адаптированные к новым условиям.
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Когти динозавров

У многих динозавров имелись когти различной формы. Когтями обладали как хищные динозавры так и растительноядные динозавры. Хищникам когти помогали при охоте, а растительноядным при защите себя и своих детенышей.
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В конце мелового периода, произошло очередное великое вымирание. 65 миллионов лет назад эволюция получила очередную возможность для своих экспериментов.
По причинам, которым мы пока не знаем точно динозавры плезиозавры и птерозавры вымерли. Динозавры были лишь частью очередного великого вымирания.
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Танки мезозойской эры

В конце мелового периода и всей мезозойской эры разнообразие видов динозавров было наибольшим. Особенно, широкого разнообразия достигли растительноядные динозавры. В жестоком мире мелового периода выдялялась особенная разновидность динозавров. Об этом говорят многочисленные находки палеонтологов.
Успех этих динозавров заключался в выработке уникальных средств защиты от хищников.
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Игры Динозавры

О мезозойской эре наслышаны все. А вот какой она была доподлинно не известно никому из ныне живущих. Предположения ученых по этому поводу различны. Все сходятся только в одном: именно тогда миллионы лет назад на земле жили динозавры. Даже по поводу того сколько видов этих загадочных животных населяло нашу планету споры в ученых кругах продолжаются до сих пор. Доподлинно, пожалуй, известно только то, что были среди них травоядные и плотоядные и, что некоторые из динозавров умели летать, а другие передвигались по суше. Игры динозавры позволяют не только посмотреть на огромных животных, но еще и поиграть с ними.

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Увлекательно и интересно

Игры динозавры очень разнообразны, а к тому же их очень много. В одних динозавры добродушны, в других воинственны. Где-то они помогают человеку, а где-то наоборот, крушат все на своем пути. Однозначно можно утверждать только то, что все они интересны.

На вопрос о том, где же попрятались динозавры, юные геймеры ответят однозначно: конечно же, в компьютерных играх. Ну куда еще деваться этим милым добродушным увальням, которые не пережили катаклизма и резкого понижения температуры. Миролюбивые громадины умеют сегодня стрелять по метеоритам, управлять самолетами, сражаясь с виртуальным агрессором, искать всевозможные предметы в бродилках. Хотя считается, что умом динозаврики не блещут, наши-то компьютерные как раз очень даже сообразительные. Они преодолевают на пути к поставленным целям массу препятствий. В одних историях они ищут друзей, в других напротив, вместе с друзьями направляются на поиски родителей.

Умеют динозавры и из пушки стрелять и цветочки в саду разводить, это уж в зависимости от того, какую из историй выбрать. Встречаются так же игры, представляющие собой картинки, где динозавриков нужно нарисовать и раскрасить.

Динозавры миролюбивые и не очень

Для геймеров постарше можно выбрать всевозможные игры стратегии, где динозавров приручили и стали использовать вместо слонов или лошадей воинственные племена. Есть и другие истории, в которых встреча с доисторическими ящерами приводит наших пращуров в замешательство. В них нужно найти ту последовательность действий, которая позволит обойти эту громадину или напротив, воспользоваться силой животного для того, чтобы продолжить путь.

Кое-где динозавры представлены как хищные монстры, и встреча с ними, даже в игре, не представляется такой уж приятной. Однако храбрых воинственно настроенных персонажей, готовых отстаивать справедливость с оружием в руках более чем достаточно. В некоторых играх встречаются даже такие смельчаки, которые выходят на встречу с динозаврами с голыми руками.

В некоторых играх с динозаврами, доисторические чудовища появляются посреди мегаполиса и крушат все на своем пути. Вполне естественно, что на борьбу с такими монстрами отправляют крутых парней с супе рмощным оружием. И не обязательно события разворачиваются на нашей планете, бои с представителями доисторического животного мира не редко проходят в далеком космосе. В таких играх на уровне все: физика, графика, спецэффекты.

Есть игры и для двоих, самое главное не сдрейфить и не спасовать перед грозным видов этих монстров, в конце концов, интеллектом они все-таки не блещут, а это значит, что при помощи хитрости и ловкости над ними всегда можно одержать верх. Игры про динозавров всегда интересны. Не стоит отказывать себе в удовольствии, быстрее выбирайте самую подходящую из них и начинайте действовать. Будет интересно, это однозначно.

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