Cities of the United Kingdom — тема топик по английскому языку

Cities and Towns of Great Britain. Большие и маленькие города Великобритании

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country, and most of the people live in large cities.

Naturally, the capital comes first among the biggest industrial cities of the country. Lots of things such as clothes, food, planes and cars are made in London.

Birmingham is the biggest town in the centre of England. Machines, cars and lorries are made here. TV — and radio-sets are also produced in Birmingham.

Manchester is an industrial capital of the North of England. It is a very old city. It is the centre of cotton industry. Manchester was the first city in Great Britain to build an airport in 1929. Manchester has many libraries, museums, art galleries and theatres.

Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. It is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Its main attractions are the Floral clock made of growing flowers, and the Edinburgh Art Festivals, the annual summer performances of operas, dancing, music and drama.

Glasgow is another great Scottish city. It is famous for its shipyards. Glasgow is a great industrial city and also the centre of Scottish culture.

Cardiff is the capital of Wales. It is a big port and ships come here from all over the world.

Cambridge and Oxford are the oldest university towns in Great Britain. Many great men studied in these universities: Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Darwin and others.

Большие и маленькие города Великобритании

Великобритания является высокоразвитой индустриальной страной, и большинство людей живут в крупных городах.

Естественно, что столица стоит на первом месте среди крупнейших промышленных городов страны. Много таких вещей, как одежда, продукты питания, самолеты и автомобили

производятся в Лондоне.

Бирмингем — это самый большой город в центре Англии. Оборудование, легковые и грузовые автомобили делаются здесь. Теле-и радиоприемники производятся также в Бирмингеме.

Манчестер — промышленная столица на севере Англии. Это очень старый город. Он является центром хлопчатобумажной промышленности. Манчестер стал первым городом в Великобритании, в котором был построен аэропорт в 1929 году. В Манчестере много библиотек, музеев, художественных галерей и театров.

Эдинбург является столицей Шотландии. Это один из самых красивых городов Европы. Главные достопримечательности города — цветочные часы из живых цветов, и Эдинбургский фестиваль искусств, на котором проходят ежегодные летние показы оперы, танцев, музыки и драмы.

Глазго — другой великий шотландский город. Он славится своими верфями. Глазго является большим промышленным городом, а также центром шотландской культуры.

Кардифф является столицей Уэльса. Это крупный порт и сюда приходят корабли со всего мира.

Кембридж и Оксфорд — старейшие университетские города Великобритании. Многие великие люди учились в этих университетах: Кромвель, Ньютон, Байрон, Дарвин и другие.

Glasgow. Home of Ships Glasgow is a great Scottish city of about one million people, famous for its shipyards, which line the banks of the Clyde river. Glasgow citizens.

Шотландия Топик — Topic Scotland Тема по английскому языку «Шотландия» с переводом : Шотландия является неотъемлемой частью Соединенного Королевства. Она занимает северную треть острова Великобритании. Шотландия — очень маленькая страна.

Scotland — Шотландия Scotland is one of four parts of the GB. In area Scotland is more than half as big as England. The principal cities of the.

Великобритания, английские топики достопримечательности The full name of the country the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The.

Великобритания Топик — Topic Great Britain Великобритания расположена на Британских островах. Она состоит из Англии, Шотландии и Уэльса, имеющих соответственно столицы — Лондон, Эдинбург и Кардифф. Великобритания отделена от Европейского континента.

Cities and Towns of the USA. Большие и маленькие города США There are very many large cities in the USA. Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the Potomac River. In.

Great Britain. Великобритания The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. They lie to the north-west of Europe. The British Isles.

Canadian Cities and Towns. Канадские города Canada is a country with rapid growth of the population. It is mainly concentrated in large cities. The most important among them is the capital.

Топик по английскому великобритания, Great Britain — Великобритания The United Kingdom and Notheren Ireland are situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, of.

Лондон, english topics london London is the capital of Great Britain. The full name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London is.

St. Petersburg — Санкт-Петербург, английский топик санкт петербург Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by.

Топик по английскому москва, Moscow — Москва Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is the seat of the highest bodies of state authority. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky.

Топики по английскому языку достопримечательности, London — Лондон When we think of Paris, Rome, Madrid, Lisbon and other European capitals, we think of them as «cities». When we think of the whole of.

Лондон Топик — Topic London Перевод темы по английскому языку «Лондон» : Лондон — столица Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. Это крупнейший город в Европе и один из крупнейших.

Англия, England — Англия The United Kingdom is very small compared with many other countries in the world. However there are only nine other countries with more people, and.

London , устная тема по английскому языку с переводом. Топик.

When we think of Paris, Rome. Madrid, Lisbon and other European capitals, we think of them as «cities’. When we think of the whole of modern London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, that great area covering several hundred square kilometres, we do not think of it as ‘a city. not even as a city and its suburbs. Modem London is not one city that has steadily become larger through the centuries; it is a number of cities. towns, and villages that have, during the past centuries, grown together to make one vast urban area.

London is situated upon both banks of the River Thames, it is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 7 million people.

London dominates the life of Britain. It is the chief port of the country and the most important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre. There is little heavy industry in London, but there is a wide range of light industry in Greater London.

London consists of three parts: the City of London, the West End and the East End.

The City extends over an area of about 2.6 square kilometres in the heart of London. About half a million people work in the City but only less than 6000 live here. It is the financial centre of the UK with many banks, offices and Stock Exchange. But the City is also a market for goods of almost every kind, from all parts of the world.

The West End can be called the centre of Tendon. Here are the historical palaces as well as the famous parks. Hyde Park with its Speaker’s Corner is also here. Among other parks are Kensington Gardens, St.James’s Park. In the West End is Buckingham Palace. Which is the Queen’s residence, and the Palace of Westminster which is the seat of Parliament.

The best-known streets here are Whitehall with important Government offices. Downing Street, the London residence of Prime Minister and the place where the Cabinet meets. Fleet Street where most newspapers have their offices, Harley Street where the highest paid doctors live, and some others.

Trafalgar Square is named so in commemoration of Nelson’s great victory. In the middle stands the famous Nelson Column with the statue of Nelson 170 feet high so as to allow him a view of the sea. The column stands in the geographical centre of the city. It is one of the best open air platforms for public meetings and demonstrations.

One of the «musts» for the sightseer are the Houses of Parliament, facing the Thames, on one side, and Parliament Square and Westminster Abbey, on the other. The House of Commons sits to the side of the Clock Tower (Big Ben), the House of Lords — to the Victoria Tower side.

Westminster Abbey is the crowning and burial place of British monarchs. It has its world famed Poet’s Corner with memorials to Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, the Bronte’s sisters. Tennyson. Longfellow, Wordsworth, Burns, Dickens, Thackeray, Hardy, Kipling and other leading writers. Only a few however, are actually buried there.

Here too is that touching symbol of a nation’s grief. The Grave of the Unknown Warrior.

The name «West End» came to be associated with wealth, luxury, and goods of high quality. It is the area of the largest department stores, cinemas and hotels. There are about 40 theatres, several concert halls, many museums including the British Museum, and the best art galleries.

It is in the West End where the University of London is centred with Bloomsbury as London’s student quarter.

The Port of London is to the east of the City. Here. today are kilometres and kilometres of docks, and the great industrial areas that depend upon shipping. This is the East End of London, unattractive in appearance, but very important to the country’s commerce.

In recent times London has grown so large. that the Government has decided that it must spread no farther. It is now surrounded by a «green belt» — a belt of agricultural and wooded land on which new buildings may be put up only with the permission of the planning authorities.

Перевод текста: London

Когда мы думаем о Париже, Риме. Мадрид, Лиссабон и другие европейские капиталы, мы думаем о них как «города. Когда мы думаем обо всем современном Лондоне, столица Англии и Великобритании, что большая область, покрывающая несколько сотен квадратных километров, мы не думаем об этом как ‘город. не, как раз когда город и его предместья. Лондон модема не один город, который устойчиво стал большим в течение столетий; это — множество городов. города, и деревни, которые, в течение прошлых столетий, росли рядом, чтобы сделать одной обширной городской областью.

Лондон расположен на оба банка Реки Темза, это — наибольший город в Великобритании и один из наибольших в мире. Его население — приблизительно 7 миллионов человек.

Лондон доминирует над жизнью Великобритании. Это — главный порт страны и самого важного коммерческого, изготовляя и культурного центра. Есть немного тяжелой промышленности в Лондоне, но есть широкий диапазон легкой промышленности в Большом Лондоне.

Лондон состоит из трех частей: Лондонский Сити, Уэст-Энд и Ист-Энд.

Город простирается по области приблизительно 2.6 квадратных километров в сердце Лондона. Приблизительно полмиллиона человек работает в Городе, но только меньше чем 6000 живые здесь. Это — финансовый центр Великобритании со многими банками, офисами и Фондовой биржей. Но Город — также рынок для товаров почти каждого вида, от всех частей мира.

Уэст-Энд можно назвать центром Сухожилия. Вот — исторические дворцы так же как известные парки. Гайд-парк с Углом его Спикера — также здесь. Среди других парков — Сады Kensington, Парк С-Джеймса. В Уэст-Энде — Букингемский Дворец. Который является местом жительства Королевы, и Дворцом Вестминстера, который является местом Парламента.

Самые известные улицы здесь — Уайтхолл с важными Правительственными учреждениями. Даунинг-стрит, Лондонское место жительства Премьер-министра и места, где Кабинет встречается. Быстроходная Улица, где большинство газет имеет их офисы, Харлей Стрит, где наиболее высокооплачиваемые доктора живут, и некоторые другие.

Квадрат Trafalgar называют так в ознаменовании большой победы Нельсона. В середине выдерживает известного Нельсона Коламна со статуей Нельсона 170 футов высотой, чтобы позволить ему представление моря. Колонка стоит в географическом центре города. Это — одна из лучших происходящих на открытом воздухе платформ для общественных встреч и демонстраций.

Один из «musts» для туриста — Здания Парламента, стоя перед Темзой, на одной стороне, и Квадрате Парламента и Вестминстерском аббатстве, на другом. Палата общин сидит к стороне Башни Часов (Big Ben), Палата лордов — к стороне Виктории Тауэр.

Вестминстерское аббатство — коронация и место погребения британских монархов. Это имеет Угол его мирового знаменитого Поэта с памятными датами к Chaucer, Шекспиру, Милтону, сестрам Бронт. Tennyson. Longfellow, Wordsworth, Ожоги, Dickens, Thackeray, Выносливый, Kipling и другие ведущие авторы. Только немногие однако, фактически похоронены там.

Вот также — то, что трогательный символ национального горя. Могила Неизвестного Воина.

Название «Уэст-Энд» прибыло, чтобы быть связанным с богатством, роскошью, и товарами высокого качества. Это — область наибольших универмагов, кино и гостиниц. Есть приблизительно 40 театров, несколько концертных залов, много музеев, включая британский Музей, и лучшие художественные галереи.

Это находится в Уэст-Энде, где Университет Лондона сосредоточен с Bloomsbury как студенческая четверть Лондона.

Порт Лондона на восток Города. Здесь. сегодня — километры и километры портового бассейна, и больших индустриальных областей, которые зависят от отгрузки. Это — Ист-Энд Лондона, непривлекательного по внешности, но очень важный для торговли страны.

Недавно Лондон стал настолько большим. то, что Правительство решило, что это должно распространиться не дальше. Это теперь окружено «зеленым поясом» — пояс сельскохозяйственной и лесистой земли, на которой новые здания могут быть подняты только с разрешением властей планирования.

Использованная литература:
1. 100 тем английского устного (Каверина В., Бойко В., Жидких Н.) 2002
2. Английский язык для школьников и поступающих в ВУЗы. Устный экзамен. Топики. Тексты для чтения. Экзаменационные вопросы. (Цветкова И. В., Клепальченко И.А., Мыльцева Н.А.)
3. English, 120 Topics. Английский язык, 120 разговорных тем. (Сергеев С.П.)

Конспект урока по английскому языку по теме «Cities of Great Britain»

Описание разработки

Developing: To develop speaking, listening , reading and writing skills.

Educational: To revise words connected with the given topic;

-To expand pupils’ knowledge according to the given topic.

Visual aids: computers, pictures, an interactive board.

I. Organization moment :

— Good morning children, sit down please!. I am glad to see you!

— Who is on duty today?

— What is the day of the week today?

— What was your home task?

Ok, thank you, sit down.

Look at the blackboard. You see the table. Today we’ll have a new theme is ‘’ Cities of Great Britain”

III. Open your vocabulary and write new words.

a continent-, континенті

the British Museum-Британдық мұражай

You are welcome to our lesson with the theme: Great Brition. I’ll divide the class into two groups. Group A- will speak about Great Britain, Group B — will speak about London. I hope you’ll find something interesting and new for yourselves. Let’s start, please. Good Luck!

II. Phonetic drill

Now pupils let’s generalize knowledge about the famous city of Great Britain, London.

IV. 1-st group Great Britain

The official name of Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. London is the capital. It’s situated on the Thames River. The national flag of the United Kingdom is so-called Union Jack. A long time ago, Britain was joined to France.

The English Channel between France and England is one of the busiest sea lanes in the world. The English Channel is about 563 kilometres long and no more than 34 kilometres wide. People often say that Englishman’s house is his castle. They mean that home is very important and personal. Most people in Britain live in houses rather than flats.

The United Kingdom consists of …. .?

England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

2-nd group

London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is its political and cultural centre. London is situated on the river Thames. More than seven million people live and work there. London consists of three parts: the City of London, the East End and the West End. In the City of London there are many banks, offices and Stock Exchange. In the West End we can see many historical places, parks, shops and theatres. The East End is the district where working people live and work. . London is one of the most important cities in the world. In London you can find some of the best theatres, cinemas and museums. There are many beautiful old churches in London too.

В школе этого не расскажут:  Спряжение глагола marier во французском языке.

What is the official language of the country? English

Let’s discuss some interesting facts concerning this city. Look at the pictures I’ve prepared and try to say several sentences about the culture and the mentioned places of interest:

Полную информацию смотрите в файле.

Содержимое разработки

Theme of the lesson :« Cities of Great Britain.»

Developing :To develop speaking, listening ,reading and writing skills.

Educational :To revise words connected with the given topic;

-To expand pupils’ knowledge according to the given topic.

Visual aids:computers, pictures, an interactive board.

-Good morning children, sit down please!. I am glad to see you!

-Who is on duty today?

-What is the day of the week today?

-What was your home task?

Ok, thank you, sit down.

Look at the blackboard. You see the table. Today we’ll have a new theme is ‘’ Cities of Great Britain”

III.Open your vocabulary and write new words.

the British Museum-Британдық мұражай

You are welcome to our lesson with the theme: Great Brition . I’ll divide the class into two groups. Group A- will speak about Great Britain , Group B — will speak about London . I hope you’ll find something interesting and new for yourselves. Let’s start, please. Good Luck!
II. Phonetic drill
Now pupils let’s generalize knowledge about the famous city of Great Britain, London.

IV.1-st group Great Britain

The official name of Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. London is the capital. It’s situated on the Thames River. The national flag of the United Kingdom is so-called Union Jack. A long time ago, Britain was joined to France.

The English Channel between France and England is one of the busiest sea lanes in the world. The English Channel is about 563 kilometres long and no more than 34 kilometres wide. People often say that Englishman’s house is his castle. They mean that home is very important and personal. Most people in Britain live in houses rather than flats.

The United Kingdom consists of ….

England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is its political and cultural centre. London is situated on the river Thames. More than seven million people live and work there. London consists of three parts: the City of London, the East End and the West End. In the City of London there are many banks, offices and Stock Exchange. In the West End we can see many historical places, parks, shops and theatres. The East End is the district where working people live and work.. London is one of the most important cities in the world. In London you can find some of the best theatres, cinemas and museums. There are many beautiful old churches in London too.

What is the official language of the country? English

Let’s discuss some interesting facts concerning this city. Look at the pictures I’ve prepared and try to say several sentences about the culture and the mentioned places of interest:

IV. Test . 1What is the official name of Great Britain ?

England, b) French, c) British

a) city, b) a clock , d) horse

3. England is in ….

a) America, b) Asia, c) Europe.

4.GreatBraitain is divided into two parts.

a) three, b) five, c) four.

5.Where is the UK situated

a) the British isles b) Ireland c) America

V.Youare a little bit tired. I offer you to do some physical exercises. Who wants to come to the blackboard and train the pupils? – Listen to . Aslanrepeat actions after her.

Stand up!
Hands up,
Hands down,
Hands on hips
And sit down.
Stand up,
To the sides,
Bend left,
Bend right.
One, two, three – hop,
One, two, three – stop.
Sit down!

Explanation of home task:

Write essay about Great Britain

Giving the marks: Today you worked very well.And I’ll put your marks. Our lesson is over. Good bye!

Қызылорда қаласы №6 орта мектебінің ағылшын тілі пәні мұғалімі Досаева Лиза

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Изучаем слова и не только…

Топики по английскому языку на тему Great Britain

Рад вам представить прекрасные уникальные топики по английскому языку. Я знаю, что многим ищут топики, но некоторая информация очень коряво написана. Вам предоставляется возможность скачать English Topics с темы Great Britain совершенно бесплатно. Данные топики использовались мной при поступлении в институт и естественно, во время обучения. Думаю, вам эти темы для изучения тоже пригодятся.

Содержание:

Great Britain

British Institutions

British traditional hol >

Great Britain

The full name of the country the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 314 000 sq. km.

The British Isles are separated from the European conti­nent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ire­land. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south.

The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the West) and Scotland (the north­ern part of the island).

There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England along its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the High­lands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. There is very little flat country except in the region known as East Anglia.

Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest and the longest of the British rivers. Some of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Trent, Tyne, Clyde and Bristol Avon.

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea.

The warm currents of the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. Winters are not severely cold and summers are rarely hot.

The population of the United Kingdom is over 58 million people. The main nationalities are: English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish. In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies.

Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. New in­dustries have been developed in the last three decades. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol.

The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy.
Назад к содержанию

British Institutions

Parliament is the most important authority in Britain. Parliament first met in the 13th century. Britain does not have a written constitution, but a set of laws. In 1689 Mary II and William III became the first constitutional monarchs. They could rule only with the support of the Parliament. Technically Parliament is made up of three parts: the Mo­narch, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

The continuity of the English monarchy has been inter­rupted only once during the Cromwell republic. Succession to the throne is hereditary but only for Protestants in the direct line of descent. Formally the monarch has a number of roles. The monarch is expected to be politically neutral, and should not make political decisions. Nevertheless, the monarch still perforins some important executive and legislative duties in­cluding opening and dissolving Parliament, signing bills passed by both Houses and fulfilling international duties as

head of state. The present sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II who was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1953.

The House of Lords comprises about 1200 peers. The house is presided over by the Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has no real power but acts as an advisory council for the House of Commons. As well as having legislative functions, the Lords is the highest’court of appeal.

The House of Commons consists of Members of Parlia­ment who are elected by the adult suffrage of the British people in general elections which are held at least every five years. The country is divided into 650 constituencies each of which elects one Member of Parliament. The Commons, there­fore, has 650 Members of Parliament. The party whkch wins the most seats forms the Government and its leader becomes the Prime Minister. The functions of Commons are legislation and security of government activities. The house is presided over by the Speaker. The government party sits on the Spea­ker’s right while on his left sit the members of the Opposition.
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British traditional holidays

Great Britain is famous for its old traditions. Some of them existed in ancient times and survived through centuries. Some of them appeared when Christianity came to British isles. Speaking about religious holidays one can’t but mention Easter, Pancake Day and Mother’s Day. The dates of these holidays aren’t strict, they depend on the date of Easter, that varies every year.

Pancake day is the popular name for the Shrove Tuesday, the day before the first day of Lent. In the middle ages people on that day made merry and ate pancakes. The ingredients of pancakes are all forbidden by Church during Lent, that is why they have to be used the day before. The most common form of celebrating this day in the old times was the all town ball game or tug-of-war, in which everyone was tearing here and there, trying to get the ball or rope into their part of the city. Today the only custom, that is observed throughout Britain is pancake eating.

For the English people the best-known name for the fourth in Lent Sunday is Mothering Sunday or Mother’s Day. For 3 centuries this day has been a day of small family gatherings when absent sons and daughters return to their homes. Gifts are made to mothers by children of all ages. Flowers and cakes are still traditional gifts. Violets and primroses are most popular flowers. Sometimes the whole family goes to church and then there is a special dinner at which roast lamb, rice-pudding and home-made wines and served.

Easter is one of the most important holidays in Christianity. In England it’s a time for giving and receiving presents, mostly Easter eggs. We can say that the egg is the most popular emblem of Easter, but spring-time flowers are also used to stress the nature’s awakening. Nowadays there are a lot of chocolate Easter eggs, having some small gifts inside. But a real hard-boiled egg, decorated and painted in bright colours , still appears on breakfast tables on Ester Day, or it’s hidden in the house or garden for children to finny. In egg that is boiled really hard will last for years. Egg-rolling is a traditional Easter pastime. You roll the eggs down a clope until they are cracked and broken, after they are eaten up.
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Christmas in Great Britain

For most British families, this is the most important festival of the year. This is the day when many people are travelling home to be with their families on Christmas Day. If you try to catch a train on 24th December you may have difficulty in finding a seat. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas but the most important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be bound on Christmas morning. At some time on Christmas Day the family will sit down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding.

In the afternoon they may watch the Queen on the televi­sion as she delivers her traditional Christmas message to the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Then they enjoy a piece of Christmas cake or eat a hot mince pie. On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a service where special hymns are sung. Sometimes singers can be heard on the streets as they collect money for charity. Most families decorate their houses with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and they usual­ly have a Christmas tree in the corner of the room, glittering with coloured lights and decoration. 26th December is also a public holiday, called Boxing Day. This is the time to visit friends and relatives or be a spectator at one of the many sporting events.

Everyone in Great Britain is waiting and enjoying this holiday very much!
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The Climate of Great Britain

Great Britain is situated on islands. It is washed by seas from all sides. That’s why the climate and the nature of Great Britain is very specific. The popular belief that it rains all the time in Britain is simply not true. In fact, London gets no more rain in a year than most other major European cities. Generally speaking, the further west you go, the more rain you get. The mild winters mean that snow is a regular feature of the higher areas only. The winters are in general a bit colder in the east of the country than they are in the west. While in summer, the south is slightly warmer and sunnier than the north. Besides Britain is famous for its fogs. Sometimes fogs are so thick that it is impossible to see anything within 2 or 3 metres.

Why has Britain’s climate got such a bad reputation? May­be it is for the same reason that British people always seem to

be talking about the weather. There is a saying that Britain doesn’t have a climate, it only has weather. You can never be sure of a fry day, though it may not rain very much altoge­ther. There can be cool and even cold days in July and some quite warm days in January. The weather changes very of­ten. Mark Twain said about America: «If you don’t like the weather in New England, just wait a few minutes* but it is more likely to have been said about England. The lack of extremes is the reason why on the few occasions when it gets genuinely hot or freezing cold, the country seems to be totally unprepared for it. A bit of snow, a few days of frost and the trains stop working and the roads are blocked. If the ther­mometer goes above 27°C, people behave as if they were in the Sahara and the temperature makes front-page headlines. These things happen so seldom that it is not worth organizing life to be ready for them. Everyone «who comes to Great Britain says that it looks like one great beautiful park. The British people love their country and take care of it.
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The Structure of Government in Great Britain

The Queen is officially head of all the branches of govern­ment, but she has little direct power in the country. The constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes lows, the government, which «executes* laws (puts them into effect) and the courts, which interpret laws. Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 con­stituencies. They are known as Members of Parliament. The Prime- Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers.

The Prime Minister, or leader of the Government, is usually the leader of the political party. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or mi­nistries. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants, who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed. Mem­bers of the House of Lords are not elected. About 70 per cent of them are «hereditary peers» because their fathers were peers before them. The 30 per cent are officially appointed by the Queen, on the advice of the Government, for various servic­es for people.
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London

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It’s one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than 11 million people. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old and beautiful. It was founded more than two thousand years ago.

Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, the West End, the East End and Westminster. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange.

Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It’s the administrative centre. The Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Government, are there. It’s a very beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben. Big Ben is really the bell which strikes every quarter of an hour. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It’s a very beautiful church built over 900 years ago. The tombs of many great statesmen, scientists and writers are there.

To the west of Westminster is West End. Here we find most of the big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. Piccadilly Circus is the heart of London’s West End. In the West End there are wide streets with beauti­ful houses and many parks, gardens and squares.

To the east of Westminster is the East End, an industrial district of the capital. There are no parks or gardens in the East End and you can’t see many fine houses there. Most of the plants and factories are situated there.

London has many places of interest. One of them is Bu­ckingham Palace. It’s the residence of the Queen. The English are proud of Trafalgar Square, which was named so in me­mory of the victory at the battle. There in 1805 the English fleet defeated the fleet of France and Spain. The last place of interest I should like to mention, is the British Museum, the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library — one of the richest in the world.

All London’s long-past history is told by its streets. There are many streets in London which are known all over the world. Among them Oxford Street, Downing Street and a lot of others can be mentioned. And tourists are usually attracted not only by the places of interest but by the streets too.

In conclusion I should say if you are lucky enough to find yourself in London some day you will have a lot to see and enjoy there.
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British Cuisine

Some people criticize English food. They say it’s unima­ginable, boring, tasteless, it’s chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables.

The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British haven’t had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?

If you ask foreigners to name some typically English di­shes,they will probably say «Fish and chips* then stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because the food doesn’t lend itself to such preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with a reason­able prices.

In most cities in Britain you’ll find Indian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants. In London you’ll also find Indone­sian, Mexican, Greek… Cynics will say that this is because English have no «cuisine* themselves, but this is not quite the true.
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British Literature

Great Britain gave the world a lot of talented people. Many famous writers and poets were born and lived in Great Britain.

One of the best known English playwrights was William Shakespeare. He draw ideas for his tragedies and comedies from the history of England and ancient Rome. Many ex­perts consider Shakespeare the greatest writer and the great­est playwright in English language. William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays which may be divided into: comedies (such as «A Midsummer Night’s Dream»), tragedies (such as «Hamlet», «Othello», «King Lear», «Macbeth») and historical plays (such as « Richard II», «Henry V», «Julius Caesar, «Antony and Cleopatra).

Robert Burns represents the generation of Romantic wri­ters. In his poems he described with love and understanding the simple life he knew. Among his wall-known poems are «Halloween», «The Jolly Beggars, «To a Mouse».

Lord George Gordon Byron. His free-spirited life style com­bined with his rare poetic gift makes him one of the most famous figures of the Romantic Era. His famous works such as «Stanzas to Augusta, «The Prisoner of Chillon», «Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, « Manfred draw readers into the pas­sion, humors and conviction of a poet whose life and work truly embodied the Romantic spirit.

Sir Walter Scott wrote the first examples of historical novel.

Lewis Carroll became famous when he published “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland”.
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The Geographical Position of Great Britain

There are two large islands and several smaller ones, which lie in the north-west coast of Europe. Collectively they are known as the British Isles. The largest island is called Great Britain. The smaller one is called Ireland. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel. The country is washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Great Britain is separated from Belgium and Holland by the North Sea, and from Ireland — by the Irish Sea.

In the British Isles there are two states. One of them go­verns of the most of the island of Ireland. This state is usual­ly called the Republic of Ireland. The other state has authori­ty over the rest of the territory.

The official name of this country is the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. But it is usually known by a shorter name — *The United Kingdom*. The total area of Great Britain is 244,000 square km.

They say that the British love of compromise is the result of the country’s physical geography. This may or may not be true, but it certainly true that the land and climate in Great Britain have a notable lack of extremes. The mountains in the country are not very high. It doesn’t usually get very cold in the winter or very not in the summer. It has no active volca­noes, and an earth tremos which does no more than rattle teacups in a few houses which is reported in the national news media. The insular geographical position of Great Brit­ain promoted the development of shipbuilding, different trai­ning contacts with other countries.
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The Structure of Government in Great Britain

The Queen is officially head of all the branches of govern­ment, but she has little direct power in the country. The constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes lows, the government, which «executes* laws (puts them into effect) and the courts, which interpret laws. Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 con­stituencies. They are known as Members of Parliament. The Prime- Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers.

The Prime Minister, or leader of the Government, is usually the leader of the political party. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or mi­nistries. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants, who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed. Mem­bers of the House of Lords are not elected. About 70 per cent of them are «hereditary peers» because their fathers were peers before them. The 30 per cent are officially appointed by the Queen, on the advice of the Government, for various servic­es for people.
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Meals in Britain

Since the 1970’s eating habits in Britain have undergone a Change. People have been encouraged by doctors, health ex­perts and government advertisements to eat less fat and more fibre. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity and heart disease. Forty per cent of adults in Britain are overweight and Britain has one of the highest death rates due to cardiovascular disease in the world. Britons have also be­come more aware of calories, the energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat every day, so that they can try to take in fewer calories and lose weight. Food manufactures have started to help the general public to make more informed choices about what they eat.

So the traditional British breakfast is bacon, eggs or sausages, preceded by fruit and followed by toasts. Britons may eat this breakfast at weekends or on special occasions but prefer a smaller and healthier meal to start a day. Lunch is a light meal and is eaten at school or work. Lunch takes 30—40 minutes. Dinner is usually the main meal of the day and consists of two courses.

In recent years, foreign foods have become a regular part of the British diet. Indian and Chinese dishes are particularly popular for evening meals. Take-aways became extremely popular in the 1980’s. The traditional British take-away is fish and chips eaten with salt and vinegar and served in an old newspaper.

The British are famous for their love of sweet things and afternoon tea with sandwiches; scones, jam and several kinds of cake, was once a traditional custom;. Most working people don’t have tea as an afternoon «meal», but they do have a short break in the middle of the afternoon for a cup of tea. Tea is often also drink with lunch and dinner.
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National Emblems of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (abbreviated from «The United King­dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*) is the political name of the country which consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (sometimes known as Ulster).

Great Britain is the name of the island which is made up of England, Scotland, Wales, whereas the British Isles is the geo­graphical name of all the islands off the north-west coast of the European continent.

In everyday speech «Britain» is used to mean the United Kingdom.

The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Yack, is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross on a white background is the cross of the 1st George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross on a blue back­ground is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scot­land. The red diagonal cross on a white background is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

The Welsh flag, called the Welsh dragon, represents a red dragon on a white and green background.

St. George’s Day falls on 23 April and is regarded as England’s national day. On this day some patriotic English­men wear a rose pinned to their jackets. A red rose is the

national emblem of England from the time of the Wars of the Roses (15th century).

St. Andrew’s Day (the 30th of November) is regarded as Scotland’s national day. On this day some Scotsmen wear a thistle in their buttonhole. As a national emblem of Scotland, thistle apparently first used in the 15th century as a symbol of defence. The Order of the Thistle is one of the highest orders of knighthood. It was founded in 1687, and is mainly given to Scottish noblemen (limited to 16 in number).

St. Patrick’s Day (the 17th of March) is considered as a national day in Northern Ireland and an official bank holi­day there. The national emblem of Ireland is shamrock. Ac­cording to legend, it was the plant chosen by St. Patrick to illustrate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity to the Irish.

St. David’s Day (the 1st of March) is the church festival of St. David, a 6th-century monk and bishop, the patron saint of Wales. The day is regarded as the national holiday of Wales, although it is not an official bank holiday.

On this day, however, many Welshmen wear either a yellow daffodil or a leek pinned to their jackets, as both plants are traditionally regarded as national emblems of Wales.

In the Royal Arms three lions symbolize England, a lion rampant — Scotland, and a harp — Ireland. The whole is encircled and is supported by a lion and a unicorn. The lion has been used as a symbol of national strength and of the British monarchy for many centuries. The unicorn, a mythical animal that looks like a horse with a long straight horn, has appeared on the Scottish and British royal coats of arms for many centuries, and is a symbol of purity.
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Newspapers in Britain

If you get on a bus or catch a train in Britain, especially during the morning and evening *rush hour», you’ll see a lot of people reading newspapers. The press tells us about various political views, interest and levels of education. Pa­pers are usually divided into «quality» papers which are seri­ous with long, informative articles and *popular* which have smaller size. They are less serious and contain more human interest stories than news.

More daily newspapers, national and regional are sold in Great Britain than in most other developed countries. There are about 135 daily papers and Sunday papers, 2000 weekly

papers and about 100 papers produced by members of ethnic groups.

A lot of people buy a morning paper, an evening paper and a couple of Sunday papers. On an average day two out of three people over the age of 15 read a national morning paper, about three out of four read a Sunday paper. So it’s not surprising to learn that national newspapers have a circulation of 15.8 million copies on weekdays and 19 million on Sundays.

Newspapers are almost always financially independent of any political party. However, during general election cam­paigns many papers recommend their readers to vote for a particular political party. Ownership of the national London and regional daily newspapers is concentrated in the hands of large press publishing groups.
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Outstanding Events in the History of Great Britain

There were many outstanding events in the history of Great Britain. Many different tribes tried to control the terri­tory of Britain. England was added to the Roman Empire in 43 A.D. Roman invasion played a very important role in the history of the country. The Roman built the first roads in the country, dug the first walls. The Romans, who were great architects, constructed the first towns in Britain.

But the Normans influenced the British civilization most of all. They came in 1066 under the leadership of William the Conqueror. As the invaders spoke French, their speech influenced the English language.

Once the British had to face the French in 1805 at the battle of Trafalgar. Then Admiral Nelson won a great victory over the French fleet. In order to commemorate this event the monument to Admiral Nelson was erected on this square.

In the 18th century technological and commercial innova­tion led to the Industrial Revolution. The 13 North American Colonies were lost, but replaced by colonies in Canada and India.

The beginning of the 20th century coincided with the beginning of the decline of the British Empire. Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa became dominions and drew up their constitutions. Britain was no longer the greatest world power. Germany was rapidly becoming the major economic power in Europe.

The rivalry between the great European powers led to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. After four years of bitter fighting the war ended in victory for the Allied Powers of Britain, France, Italy and the USA. Germany was defeated. The destruction was terrible, there were more than 10 million killed.

The war was followed by a period of depression in economy. It was a period of great social unrest. Unemployment was high, wages low and there were numerous strikes. From 1930 to 1933 three million British people out of the total workforce of 14 million were unemployed.

Britain was soon involved into another war. After Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939, Britain declared war on Germany. Led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill Britain fought against Germany in the alliance with the Soviet Union and the USA. Germany surrendered in May 1945. The war had cost Britain a quarter of its national wealth.

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Between 1945 and 1965 more than 500 million people in former British colonies became self-governing. India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma became independent and joined the Commonwealth as free and equal members.

In the 1970s and 1980s Britain experienced new social problems connected with the arrival of immigrants. By 1990 there were 5 million immigrants in Britain. The government passed laws to prevent unequal treatment of immigrants, but also to control the number of immigrants coming to Britain.
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Places of Interest in Great Britain

Britain is rich in its historic places which link the present with the past.

The oldest part of London is Lud Hill, where the city is originated. About a mile west of it there is Westminster Pa­lace, where the king lived and the Parliament met, and there is also Westminster Abbey, the coronation church.

Liverpool, the «city of ships», is England’s second grea­test port, ranking after London. The most interesting sight in the Liverpool is the docks. They occupy a river frontage of seven miles. The University of Liverpool, established in 1903, is noted for its School of Tropical Medicine. And in the music world Liverpool is a well-known name, for it’s the home town of «The Beatles*.

Stratford-on-Avon lies 93 miles north-west of London. Shakespeare was born here in 1564, and here he died in 1616.

Cambridge and Oxford Universities are famous centres of learning.

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, presumably built by Druids, members of an order of priests in ancient Britain. Tintagel Castle is King Arthur’s reputed birthplace. Canter­bury Cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, head of the Church of England.

The British Museum is the largest and richest museum in the world. It was founded in 1753 and contains one of the world’s richest collections of antiquities. The Egyptian Gal­leries contain human and animal mummies. Some parts of Athens’ Parthenon are in the Greek section.

Madam Tussaud’s Museum is an exhibition of hundreds

of life-size wax models of famous people of yesterday and today. The collection was started by Madam Tussaud, a French modeller in wax, in the 18th century. Here you can meet Marilyn Monroe, Elton John, Picasso, the Royal Family, the Beatles and many others: writers, movie stars, singers, politi­cians, sportsmen, etc.
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Sport in Great Britain

Sport plays such a large part in British life that many idioms in the English language have come from the world of sport. For example, «that’s not cricket* means «that’s not fair» and «to play the game* means «to be fair». The most popular sport in England is football. A lot of people support their local clubs at matches on Saturday afternoons or watch the matches on television.

The football league in England and Wales has four divi-

sions. Each division contains twenty teams. There are two main prizes each season. The football league championship is won by the team that is top of the first division. The final of this competition takes place every May at the famous Wemb­ley stadium in London. Some of the best-known clubs in En­gland are Manchester United, Liverpool and Arsenal. But many clubs have problems with money at the moment. Some people say that the league is too big and that the players get paid too much. Others say that television is making the crowds stay at home.

Sport has for a long time been a very important part of a child’s education in Britain, not just — as you may think to develop physical abilities, but also to provide a certain kind of moral education. Team games encourage such social qualities as enthusiasm, cooperation, loyalty and unselfishness.
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The British Media

The British Media consists of the press and radio and TV broadcasting.

Now a couple of words about papers. First of all there is no subscription. You may buy any on sale. There are two main types of newspapers: the «popular» papers and the «qua-lity» papers.

The popular papers are less in size, with many pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read. They are such papers as «Daily Express*, «Daily mail», «Daily Mirror», «Daily Star», «The Sun» and others.

The «quality» papers are for more serious readership. These papers are bigger in size, with larger articles and more detailed information. The «quality» papers are — «The Times*, «Daily Telegraph*, «The Guardian*, «Financial Times*, «The Independent*.

In addition to daily papers we. have just mentioned above there are Sunday papers. They have a higher circulation than the dailies. Sunday papers in Great Britain are such «quality» papers as « Observer*, «Sunday Times», «Sunday Telegraph* and such «popular* papers as: «News of the World*, «Sun-day Express*, «Sunday Mirror*, «Mail on Sunday*.

As far as broadcasting and telecasting are concerned there are two radio and TV stations. The first one — well-known BBC — British Broadcasting Corporation, and the second — IBA — Independent Broadcasting Authorities.

The newspapers in Britain are proud of the fact that they are different from each other — each tries to have a definite profile.
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The British Painters

William Turner, a great romantic English landscape painter, was born in Devonshire in 1775. He lived with his uncle in Middlesex, where he began to attend school. His first dra­wings are dated 1787, when he was only twelve years of age. His childish sketch-books, filled with drawings, are still pre­served in the British Museum.

When he was 21, he began to exhibit oil paintings. As a landscape painter Turner was interested mainly in light and colour effects. One of his famous paintings is even called “Light and Colour”.Turner died in London in 1851. His pictures and draw­ings became the property of the British nation.

William Turner is considered to be one of the world grea­test painters.

John Constable is a master of landscape painting in the romantic style. Constable was the first who introduced green into painting.

He was the son of a miller in Bergholt. He went to London in 1799 to study painting at the Royal Academy schools.

He exhibited his first landscape paintings in 1802. He was fascinated by reflections in water and light on clouds, and produced many cloud studies. Many of his paintings depict the countryside of the Stour River valley in Suffolk where he had grown up. He often painted in the open air, but he usually finished his canvases in the studio.

Constable’s works include The Cornfield (1826, National Gallery, London), Dedham Lock and Mill in 1820.

Thomas Gainsborough, (1727-1788), English painter, considered one of the great masters of portraiture and landscape painting. Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He showed artistic ability at an early age, and when he was 15 years old he studied drawing and etching in London with French engraver Hubert Gravelot. From 1760 to 1774 he lived in Bath, a fashionable health resort, where he painted numerous portraits and landscapes. In 1774 he painted, by royal invitation, portraits of King George III and the queen consort, Charlotte Sophia. He was the favorite painter of the British aristocracy.

Gainsborough executed more than 500 paintings, of which more than 200 are portraits. His portraits are characterized, by poetic charm, and by cool and fresh colors. His most famous portraits include Orpin, the Parish Clerk (Tate Gallery, London); The Baillie Family (1784) and Mrs. Siddons (1785).
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William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens remain two of the most popular and widely known British writers all over the world, Dickens began his writing career as a journalist, and all his novels were first published serially in periodicals-Many of his works highlight the injustice of 19th century social institutions and inequalities between the rich and the poor. His most famous works include «Oliver Twist» and *David Copperfield*. As to Shakespeare in addition to wri­ting 35 known plays, he wrote 154 sonnets and sometimes acted in small parts in his own plays. He is known to have played the Ghost in «Hamlet*. His best known plays include «King Lear*, «A Midsummer night’s dream» and «Romeo and Juliet*.

The Bronte sister, Charlotte (1816—1855), Emily (1818— 1848) and Anne (1820—1849), were three talented 19th cen­tury women novelists whose works are regarded as classics today. Charlotte is best known for her novel «Jane Eyre».

The novels of Jane Austen are known for their subtlery of observation and irony, together with their insights into the provincial life of the middle-class in the early part of 19th

century. Her works include «Emma», « Pride and Prejudice* and others.

One of the most widely known English poets is remarkable because his work has been transcribed, published, read and comment on since his death. He is Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1345— 1400). His best known work is «The Canterbury Tales*, a collection of tales. Chaucer is buried in Westminster Abbey.
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The Problem of Environmental Protection in Great Britain

Environmental protection is an international issue of great importance and Great Britain pays much attention to it. There are nearly 500 000 protected buildings and 7000 conserva­tion areas of architecture of historical interest in Britain. The Government supports the work of the voluntary sector in preserving the national heritage.

Total emissions of smoke in the air have fallen by 85 per cent since 1960. Most petrol stations in Britain stock unlea­ded petrol. The Government is committed to the control of gases emission, which damage the ozone layer. They also con­tribute to the greenhouse effect, which leads to global war­ming and a rise in sea levels. Britain stresses the need for studying the science of climate change.

Green belts are areas where land should be left open and free from urban sprawl. The Government attaches great importance to their protection. National parks cover 9 per cent of the total land area of England and Wales. The National Rivers Authority protects island waters in En­gland and Wales. In Scotland the River purification autho­rities are responsible for water pollution control. Great Britain takes care of its environment for themselves and next generations.
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The Towns of Great Britain

The centre of everything in Great Britain is the city of London. It’s situated at the centre of a vast national and international network of communication. London consists of four main districts, which differ from each other. These are the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

London’s industries are extremely varied. Among them an extensive system of docks and port industries, electrical engineering, the motor car industry and other.

The other towns, situated to the north of the Thames are Oxford and Cambridge.

Oxford was first mentioned in recorded history in the tenth century and later became an important trade centre in medieval times, then it developed into leading educational centre.

Cambridge is also best known for its ancient university. Its industries are mostly concerned with electronics which has an international reputation.

Bristol dominates South-west England, both as the region’s largest seaport and as its largest city. It is a major centre of metallurgy, aircraft and chemical industries.

Of the towns situated in the south of England the largest ones are Southampton, Portsmouth and Brighton.

Southampton is primarily a seaport, the most important on the south coast.

Brighton is sne of the most popular seaside resorts of Britain. It has mild climate, warm sea and wonderful bea­ches.

Manchester is a city of ancient origin. By the 17th centu­ry it was great commercial city, a centre of textile industry. Now engineering along with clothing manufacture are most important industries there.

Sheffield, situated in South Yorkshire, produces almost

two-thirds of the country’s alloy steel, it is famous for its tools and cutlery. Other industries include paper making machinery and food processing.

In North Yorkshire the largest town is York. Its leading industries are engineering and manufacture of confectio­nery. York attracts many tourists because of its famous me­dieval city walls.
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Географическое положение Великобритании (топик)

Geographical position of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles which consist of two main islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands, including the Orkney Islands, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, the Shetland Islands, and some others. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland.

The United Kingdom has a total area of approximately two hundred and forty five thousand square kilometers. The capital of the country is London. It is located in southeastern England. London has a population of about seven million people, including its suburbs. Birmingham is the United Kingdom’s second-largest city. The total population of the UK is over sixty three million people. About eighty percent of the population is urban.
England and Wales occupy the southern part of Great Britain, while Scotland occupies its northern part. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the English Channel and washed by the North Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The rivers in Great Britain are not very long. The most main rivers are the Thames, the Severn, the Trent, the Tees, the Tyne, the Eden and some others.
Scotland and Wales are the most mountainous parts of the UK. On the border of England and Scotland there is a range of hills which is called the Cheviot Hills. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis in Scotland, while the highest mountain in England is Scafell Pike in the Lake District.

The climate of Great Britain is greatly affected by the Atlantic and the warm current of Golf Stream. As a result, the weather is changeable and the climate is mild: winters are not so severe and summers are not as hot as in the rest of Europe. The overall climate in England is called temperate maritime. July is normally the warmest month in England while January and February are the coldest. As the English have such a variable climate, it is difficult to predict the weather. The average temperature is not much lower than 0 °C in winter and not much higher than 30 °C in summer, but mostly the thermometer only reaches 26 °C.
The main ports are Portsmouth, Plymouth, Dover, Cardiff and Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.

Географическое положение Соединенного королевства Великобритании

Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии расположено на Британских островах, состоящих из двух основных островов, Великобритании и Ирландии, и множества маленьких островов, включая Оркнейские острова, остров Мэн, Шетландские и Нормандские острова и другие. Соединенное Королевство состоит из четырех стран: Англия, Уэльс, Шотландия и Северная Ирландия. Их столицами являются Лондон, Кардифф, Эдинбург и Белфаст соответственно. Великобритания состоит из Англии, Шотландии, Уэльса и не включает в себя Северную Ирландию.

Общая площадь Соединенного Королевства составляет приблизительно двести сорок пять тысяч квадратных километров (245 000 км2).
Столица страны — Лондон. Он располагается на юго-востоке Англии. Численность населения Лондона составляет около семи миллионов человек, включая пригороды. Бирмингем считается вторым по величине крупнейшим городом страны. Общая численность населения Соединенного Королевства составляет более шестидесяти трех миллионов человек. Около восьмидесяти процентов населения — горожане.
Англия и Уэльс занимают южную часть Великобритании, в то время как Шотландия занимает ее северную часть. Британские острова отделены от Европейского континента проливом Ла-Манш и омываются Атлантическим океаном, Северным морем и Ирландским морем.

Реки в Англии не очень длинные. Самыми главными считаются Темза, Северн, Трент, Тис, Тайн, Идеи и некоторые другие.
Шотландия и Уэльс являются гористыми частями Великобритании. На границе Англии и Шотландии находятся горы Чевиот-Хилс. Самой высокой горой Великобритании является Бен-Невис (Шотландия), а самой высокой горой в Англии — Скофел-Пайк (Озерный край).

Климат Великобритании находится под влиянием Атлантического океана и теплого течения Гольфстрим. В результате погода в стране переменчивая, а климат умеренный: зима не такая суровая, а лето не такое жаркое, как в остальных частях Европы. В целом климат в Англии называют умеренным морским. Июль считается самым жарким летним месяцем, в то время как январь и февраль — самыми холодными зимними месяцами. Поскольку у англичан такой переменчивый климат, весьма сложно предсказать погоду даже на день. Средняя температура зимой — не ниже О °С, и не выше 30 °С летом, однако в основном температура на градуснике едва поднимается до 26 °С.
Основными портами считаются Портсмут, Плимут, Дувр, Кардифф и Эдинбург, столица Шотландии.

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