Assessing company performance, the prospects, the damage, the chances in Business English,

Содержание

Текст книги «Английский язык для студентов заочной формы обучения»

Представленный фрагмент произведения размещен по согласованию с распространителем легального контента ООО «ЛитРес» (не более 20% исходного текста). Если вы считаете, что размещение материала нарушает чьи-либо права, то сообщите нам об этом.

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Автор книги: Татьяна Минакова

Жанр: Учебная литература, Детские книги

Текущая страница: 5 (всего у книги 14 страниц) [доступный отрывок для чтения: 10 страниц]

2.3.3.1 Задание 1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания

marketing research – исследование маркетинга;

marketing manager – управляющий маркетингом;

need – нужда, нуждаться;

to tabulate – составлять таблицу;

to take charge of – руководить;

to handle – обрабатывать (документы);

top manager – главный управляющий;

to assume – предполагать;

to define – определять;

available – имеющийся в наличии;

to set up – создавать;

product – продукт; товар, изделие;

tangible – осязаемый, материальный;

to own – владеть;

to perform – выполнять;

to provide – обеспечивать;

party – участник, сторона;

to develop – разрабатывать;

to meet – удовлетворять (потребности), соответствовать;

to survive – выживать;

life cycle – жизненный цикл;

failure – неудача, крах, банкротство;

brand – марка (изделия);

branding – присвоение товару марочного названия;

trademark – торговая марка, торговый знак;

legal term – юридический термин;

craft guild – ремесленная гильдия;

merchant guild – торговая гильдия;

purchase – покупка, покупать;

sales volume – объем реализованной продукции;

costs – издержки, затраты;

2.3.3.2 Задание 3. Прочитайте тексты А, В, С, переведите их письменно

Тext А. Marketing Research

The marketing concept says that marketing managers should meet the needs of customers. This means marketing managers have to rely on help from marketing research – procedures to develop and analyze new information to help marketing managers make decisions.

Most large companies have a separate marketing research department to plan and carry out research projects. These departments often use outside specialists – including interviewing and tabulating services – to handle technical assignments. Further, specialized marketing consultants and marketing research organizations may be called in to take charge of a research project.

Small companies usually don’t have separate marketing research departments. They depend on salespeople or top managers.

Good marketing research requires much more than just technical tools. It requires cooperation between researchers and marketing managers.

The scientific method combined with the strategy planning framework can help marketing managers make better decisions.

The scientific method forces an orderly research process. The marketing research process is a five-step application of the scientific method that includes: defining the problem; analyzing the situation; getting problem-specific data; interpreting the data; solving the problem.

Defining the problem is the most important – and often the most difficult – step in the marketing research process. Sometimes it takes up over half the total time spent on a research project. But it’s time well spent if the objectives of the research are clearly defined. The best research job on the wrong problem is wasted effort.

The situation analysis is an informal study of what information is already available in the problem area. It can help define the problem and specify what additional information – if any – is needed.

The next step is to plan a formal research project to gather primary data. There are different methods for collecting primary data. Which approach to use depends on the nature of the problem and how much time and money are available.

When data has been collected it has to be analyzed to decide what it all means. In quantitative research this step usually involves statistics. Statistical packages – easy–to–use computer programs that analyze data – have made this step easier.

In the problem solution step, managers use the research results to make marketing decisions.

When the research process is finished the marketing manager should be able to apply the findings in marketing strategy planning – the choice of a target market.

A marketing information system (MIS) is an organized way of continually gathering and analyzing data to provide marketing managers with information they need to make decisions. In some companies, an MIS is set up by marketing specialists. In other companies, it is set up by a group that provides all departments in the firm with information. Marketing managers often don’t know in advance exactly what questions they will have – or when. But they do know what data they have routinely used or needed in the past. They can also foresee what types of data might be useful. They should communicate these needs to the MIS manager so the information will be there when they want it.

Routinely analyzing incoming data can be valuable to marketing managers. But incoming data shouldn’t be their only source of information for decision-making. Marketing information systems tend to focus on recurring information needs. But marketing managers must try to satisfy ever-changing needs in dynamic markets. So marketing research must be used – to supplement the data already available in the MIS system.

Text C. Product and New-Product Development

Product means the need-satisfying offering of a firm.

You already know that a product may be a physical good or a service or a blend of both. A good is a tangible item. When you buy it, you own it. And it’s usually pretty easy to see exactly what you’ll get. On the other hand, a service is a deed performed by one party for another. When you provide a customer with a service, the customer can’t “keep” it. Services are not physical – they are intangible. You can’t “hold” a service. Most products are a combination of tangible and intangible elements.

Competition is strong and dynamic in most markets. So, it is essential for a firm to keep developing new products – as well as modifying its current products – to meet changing customer needs and competitor’s actions. New-product planning is not an optional matter. It has to be done just to survive in today’s dynamic markets. A new product is one that is new in any way for the company concerned. A product can become “new” in many ways. A fresh idea can be turned into a new product – and start a new life cycle. Even small changes in an existing product can make it “new”. A product can be called “new” for only a limited time. Six months is the limit according to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – the federal government agency that policies antimonopoly laws.

New-product development demands effort, time, and talent – and still the risks and costs of failure are high.

2.3.3.3 Задание 4. Ответьте на вопросы по текстам А, В, С

1 Why do marketing managers have to rely on help of marketing research?

2 What does a good marketing research require?

3 Can the scientific method help marketing managers make better decisions?

4 What steps does the market research process include?

5 Defining the problem is the most important and difficult step, isn’t it?

6 Does the quantitative research involve statistics?

7 What is a market information system used for?

8 Are incoming data the only source of information for decision – making?

9 What needs must marketing managers try to satisfy?

10 Is a good a tangible item?

11 New product planning is not an optional matter, is it?

12 What does new product development demand?

2.3.4 Тексты для студентов специальности «Экономика и управление на предприятии», «Менеджмент организации», «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Управление персоналом»

III семестр для специальностей «Экономика и управление на предприятии», «Менеджмент организации», «Государственное и муниципальное управление»

2.3.4.1 Задание 1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

the like – подобное;

existence – существование, жизнь;

responsibility – ответственность, обязанность;

aim, goal, target, objective – цель;

to define – определить, давать определение;

to forecast – предсказывать;

to accept – принимать, признавать;

to involve in – вовлекать;

to make decision – принимать решение;

to diversify – разнообразить;

to run smoothly – работать плавно;

to respond to – реагировать на;

to chase up supplies – гоняться за поставками;

urgent order – срочный заказ;

to spell out – разжевывать (зд. расписать, подчеркнуть);

to set objectives – ставить цель;

analytical ability – аналитические способности;

as a team – как одна команда;

superior – старший, начальник;

in relation to – относительно к;

to measure – оценивать;

to get on well with – иметь хорошие отношения с;

integrity – цельность; честность.

to have much in common – иметь много общего;

to depend on the level (position) – зависеть от должности;

to spend a great deal of time – тратить много времени;

to meet (to perform) objectives – достигать цели;

interpersonal skills – межличностые навыки;

least understood – наименее попятный;

personnel department – отдел кадров;

to recruit (to hire) – принимать на работу;

training courses – подготовительные курсы;

to possess – обладать, владеть;

to chair a meeting – быть председателем собрания (заседания, совещания);

to post a list of vacancies – вывешивать список вакансий;

notice board – доска объявлений;

to be referred for a position – быть назначенным на должность;

a set of qualifications – перечень качеств;

standard application form – стандартный бланк;

one-to-one interview – интервью «один на один»;

panel interview – интервью с несколькими претендентами;

«deep» end interview – интервью, во время которого претендент обязан показать наглядно владение специальностью;

to cope with – справляться с чем-либо;

to be aware of– осознать;

organization culture – взаимоотношения в организации;

data processing – обработка данных.

2.3.4.2 Задание 2. Прочитайте тексты А, В переведите их письменно

Text A. The manager’s role

Our society is made up of all kinds of organisations, such as companies, government departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. In all these organisations, there are people carrying out the work of a manager although they do not have that title. The vice-chancellor of a university, the president of a students’ union or a chief librarian are all managers. They have a responsibility to use the resources of their organisation effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

Are there certain activities common to all managers? Can we define the task of a manager? A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in, 1916 a classic definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control. This definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about command, they say a manager must motivate or direct and lead other workers.

Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions is useful. However, in most companies, the activities of a manager depend on the level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as the chairman and directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, how it should face up to the competition, whether it should diversify etc. These strategic decisions are part of the planning function mentioned by Fayol.

On the other hand, middle management and supervisors are generally making the day-to-day decisions which help an organisation to run efficiently and smoothly. They must respond to the pressures of the job, which may mean dealing with an unhappy customer, chasing up supplies, meeting an urgent order or sorting out a technical problem. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organisation.

An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr Peter Drucker. He has spelled out what managers do. In his opinion, managers perform five basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these should be and how the organisation can achieve them. For this task, they need analytical ability. Secondly, managers organise. They must decide how the resources-of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of human beings. Their third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. They must be able to get people to work as a team, and to be as productive as possible. To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all levels of the organisation – their superiors, colleagues, and subordinates. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organisation, and of its staff, in relation to those targets. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally, Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and to grow as human beings. They make them bigger and richer persons.

In Peter Drucker’s view, successful managers are not necessarily people who are liked or who get on well with others. They are people who command the respect of workers, and who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses but must bring character to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

2.3.4.3 Ответьте на вопросы

1. What is our society made up of?

2. What is the definition of manager’s role?

3. What decisions will the managers be making?

4. What do we call the “strategic decisions”?

5. What decisions are middle management and supervisors generally making?

6. How many basic operations do managers perform?

7. What ability does manager need to fulfill the first basic operation?

8. What must manager do secondly and thirdly?

9. What are manager’s fourth and fifth tasks?

10. What kind of people, in Pater Drucker’s view, should successful managers be?

2.3.4.4 Text B. Business Structure

Each company has its business structure. Many companies have much in common in their structures. The number of departments in corporation depends on the size of the company and on the nature of the goods and services it provides. All departments are headed by managers.

In most companies the activity of a manager depends on the level at which he/she is working. Top managers are involved in long range planning, policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. Middle management and supervisors make day-to-day decisions. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.

Effective managers meet their company’s objectives through a successful combination of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. In order to perform these management functions, managers need not only organizational and technical but also interpersonal skills. Managers perform various functions, but one of the most important and least understood aspects of their job is proper utilization of people.

A corporation with many employees may need a personnel department. Personnel department recruits new employees and organizes training courses. A qualified personnel manager should possess good communication skills. He/she should be able to chair a meeting, to conduct an interview with job applicants. There are many ways in which an organization can recruit personnel. Posting a list of vacancies on the company notice board is fairly common. A subordinate may be referred for a position by his/her superior. Advertising is a commonly used technique for recruiting people from outside. The personnel manager has two sets of qualifications to consider if he wants to choose from among the applicants. He/she must consider both professional qualifications and personal characteristics. A candidate’s education, experience and skills are included in his/her professional qualifications. These can be listed on a resume (American English) or CV (Curriculum Vitae – British English). Many companies expect all personal information to be entered on a standard application form. Personal characteristics must be evaluated through interviews. There are different kinds of interviews: traditional one-to-one interviews, panel interviews where one or more candidates are interviewed by a panel of interviewers and even ‘deep-end’ interviews where applicants have to demonstrate how they can cope in actual business situations. The atmosphere of an interview may vary from the informal to the formal ones.

A good manager should be aware of the type of organization culture his/her corporation adheres to. There are now five broad fields of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, finance, and data processing. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of management you can specialize as a general manager, a production manager or a personnel manager.

2.3.4.5 Ответьте на вопросы

1 What does the number of departments in corporation depend on?

2 Who is the head of all departments?

3 What are the top managers and middle managers and middle management involved in?

4 What skills do all managers need?

5 What department may a corporation need? 6 What does personal department do?

7 What kinds of interview do you know?

8 What should a good manager be aware of?

9 How many broad manager be aware of? What are they?

III семестр для специальности «Управление персоналом»

2.3.4.6 Задание 1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

Text A. What is Personal Management?

personnel [.pasa’nel] management – руководство кадрами;

recruiting [n’kruitin] – вербовка, набор, наем;

hiring [‘haiann] – наем (сотрудников);

to encourage – поощрять;

to encounter – встретиться, столкнуться (с чем-л.);

salary scale – шкала заработной платы, тарифная сетка, расценки;

to put in(to) practice – осуществлять;

fringe benefits – дополнительные Льготы (пенсия, оплаченные отпуска и т.п.);

development – улучшение, усовершенствование;

to develop – развивать;

employee development – усовершенствование служащих;

direct compensation of employees – прямые выплаты служащим;

employee benefits – пособия работающим по найму;

employee (personnel) policy – кадровая политика;

operating procedure – способ эксплуатации;

organization plan – схема организационной структуры;

personnel department – отдел кадров;

to implement – выполнять, осуществлять;

policy – стратегия, политика, линия поведения, установка, курс;

policy definition – выработка стратегии;

placement – определение на должность;

labor relations – трудовые отношения;

to afford – позволить себе;

assessing – оценка, определение;

screening – (тщательная) проверка, рассмотрение, отбор;

employee trust – ответственность сотрудников;

guideline – директива, указание;

explicit [iks’phsrt] – ясный, подробный; подробно разработанный;

well-proven – хорошо отработанный;

expediency [iks’pi:d39nsi] – целесообразность; выгодность;

job analysis – анализ производственных операций путем разбиения их на элементы; изучение трудовых операций;

job title – название должности;

job description – должностная инструкция;

mental requirements – психические ограничения;

physical requirements – физические ограничения;

manual dexterity – ловкость, быстрота, сноровка, проворство рук;

hazard [‘haezed] – риск;

job specification – квалификационные требования к исполнителю работы.

2.3.4.7 Задание 2. Прочитайте тексты А, В переведите их письменно

Text A. What is Personal Management?

Personnel management is concerned with the effective use of the skills of people. They may be salespeople in a store, clerks in an office, operators in a factory, or technicians in a research laboratory. In a business, personnel management starts with the recruiting and hiring of qualified people and continues with directing and encouraging their growth as they encounter problems that arise in working toward established goals.

In addition to recruiting and hiring, some of the responsibilities of a personnel manager are:

1 To classify jobs and prepare wage and salary scales.

2 To counsel employees.

3 To deal with disciplinary problems.

4 To develop safety standards and to put them into practice.

5 To manage fringe benefit programs, such as group insurance, health, and retirement plans.

6 To provide for periodic reviews of the performance of each individual employee, and for recognition of his or her strengths and needs for further development.

7 To assist individuals in their efforts to develop and qualify for more advanced jobs.

8 To plan and supervise training programs.

9 To be informed of developments in personnel management. Personnel managers often deal with the following difficult situations concerning the employees:

– The firm’s employees – especially-the most qualified ones – can get better jobs with other employers.

– When a firm has not enough supervisory and specialized personnel with adequate experience and job capabilities, it has to train and develop its own people. This can be time consuming and expensive.

– The cost of hiring and training employees at all levels is increasing, for instance, several thousand dollars for a person. A mistake in hiring or in slow and inefficient methods of training can be costly.

– Most employees want better direct compensation, employee benefits, and working conditions that the firm cannot afford, but other employers can. So, all employee policies and operating procedures should be developed with great care.

The personnel department has the responsibility to define and implement policies, procedures and programs for recruitment, selection, training, placement, safety, employee benefits, compensation, labor relations, organization planning, and employee development.

Effective human resource management develops the abilities of job candidates and employees to meet the needs of the firm. Human resource (HR) management is a balancing act. At one extreme, you hire only qualified people who are well suited to the firm’s needs. At the other extreme, you train and develop employees to meet the firm’s needs. Most expanding businesses fall between the two extremes i.e., they hire the best people they can find and afford, and they also recognize the need to train and develop both current and new employees as the firm grows.

Functions of Personnel Management

One function of personnel management is to hire and train the right people. The effective personnel system is:

– Assessing personnel needs.

– Selecting and hiring personnel.

– Orienting new employees to the business.

– Deciding compensation issues.

The second function of human resource management is the training and development of employees.

A third function is raising employee trust and productivity. These three functions stress the importance of a good human resource management climate and provide specific guidelines for creating such a climate.

Text B. Developing a Personnel System

Assessing Personnel Needs

The firm’s personnel policies should base on explicit, well-proven principles. Firms that follow these principles have higher performance and growth rates than those that do not follow them. The most important of these principles are:

– All positions should be filled with people who are both willing and able to do the job.

– A written job description and definition are necessary.

– Employees chosen on the basis of the best person available are more effective than those chosen on the basis of friendship or expediency.

– Employee training results in higher performance.

The process of selecting a competent person for each position is best accomplished through a systematic definition of the requirements for each job, including the skills, knowledge and other qualifications that employees must possess to perform each task. To guarantee that personnel needs are adequately specified personnel manager has to:

1) conduct a job analysis,

2) develop a written job description, and

3) prepare a job specification.

Job analysis is a systematic investigation that collects all information related to each task performed by an employee. From this analysis, you identify the skills, knowledge and abilities required of that employee, and determine the duties, responsibilities and requirements of each job. Job analysis should provide information such as

– Job description – major and implied duties and responsibilities.

– Characteristics of the job including location.

– Types of material used.

– Types of equipment used.

– Mental and physical requirements.

– Manual dexterity required.

– Working conditions (inside, outside, hot, cold, dry, wet, noisy, dirty, etc.).

The job analysis is used to generate a job description, which defines the duties of each task, and other responsibilities of the position. The description covers the various task requirements, such as mental or physical activities; working conditions and job hazards. The approximate percentage of time the employee should spend on each activity is also specified. Job descriptions focus on the what, why, where and how of the job.

The best way to develop job descriptions is to ask employees themselves to describe their jobs. A good employee may know more about the job than anyone else.

Job Specif ication

The job specification describes the person expected to fill a job. It details the knowledge, education, qualities, skills and abilities needed to perform the job satisfactorily. The job specification provides a standard to measure how well the worker matches a job. The job specification should be used as the basis for recruiting.

2.3.4.8 Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы по текстам А, B

1 What are the responsibilities of a personnel manager? Name them.

2 What difficult situations concerning the employees may be encountered by personnel managers?

3 What are the responsibilities of personnel department?

4 What are the three functions of personnel management?

5 What are the most important principles of a firm’s personnel policies?

6 What is a job analysis?

7 What information is contained in a job analysis?

8 What is a job description?

9 What information is contained in a job description?

10 What is a job specification?

11 What information is contained in a job specification?

Представленный фрагмент произведения размещен по согласованию с распространителем легального контента ООО «ЛитРес» (не более 20% исходного текста). Если вы считаете, что размещение материала нарушает чьи-либо права, то сообщите нам об этом.

Текст и пропущенные части

Одно из заданий на чтение ЕГЭ по английскому языку предполагает заполнение пропусков в тексте частями предложений. На этой странице приводятся решение заданий из открытой базы Федерального института педагогических измерений (фипи).

Задание 1 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

London Zoo

London Zoo is one of the most important zoos in the world. There are over 12,000 animals at London Zoo and A __________! Its main concern is to breed threatened animals in captivity. This means we might be able to restock the wild, should disaster ever befall the wild population.

Partula Snail, Red Crowned Crane, Arabian Oryx, Golden Lion Tamarin, Persian Leopard, Asiatic Lion and Sumatran Tiger are just some of the species London Zoo is helping to save.

That is why it is so important that we fight to preserve the habitats that these animals live in, as well as eliminate other dangers B __________. But we aim to make your day at London Zoo a fun and memorable time, C __________.

In the Ambika Paul Children’s Zoo, for instance, youngsters can learn a new love and appreciation for animals D __________. They can also learn how to care for favourite pets in the Pet Care Centre.

Then there are numerous special Highlight events E __________ unforgettable pony rides to feeding times and spectacular animal displays. You will get to meet keepers and ask them what you are interested in about the animals they care for, F __________.

Whatever you decide, you will have a great day. We have left no stone unturned to make sure you do!

1. because they see and touch them close up
2. such as hunting exotic animals and selling furs
3. as well as the ins and outs of being a keeper at London Zoo
4. that is not counting every ant in the colony
5. which demand much time and effort
6. which take place every day, from
7. despite the serious side to our work

A−4; B−2; C−7; D−1; E−6; F−3

London Zoo

London Zoo is one of the most important zoos in the world. There are over 12,000 animals at London Zoo and that is not counting every ant in the colony (В Лондонском зоопарке живут более 12 тысяч животных, не считая муравьев в колонии)! Its main concern is to breed threatened animals in captivity. This means we might be able to restock the wild, should disaster ever befall the wild population.

Partula Snail, Red Crowned Crane, Arabian Oryx, Golden Lion Tamarin, Persian Leopard, Asiatic Lion and Sumatran Tiger are just some of the species London Zoo is helping to save.

That is why it is so important that we fight to preserve the habitats that these animals live in, as well as eliminate other dangers such as hunting exotic animals and selling furs (Поэтому нас важно бороться за сохранение среды обитания этих животных, а также устранять другие опасности, такие как охота на экзотических животных и продажа их меха). But we aim to make your day at London Zoo a fun and memorable time, despite the serious side to our work (Но мы стараемся сделать ваш день в Лондонском зоопарке веселым и незабываемым временем, несмотря на серьезность нашей работы).

In the Ambika Paul Children’s Zoo, for instance, youngsters can learn a new love and appreciation for animals because they see and touch them close up (В детском зоопарке имени Амбики Пол, например, дети могут по-новому почувствовать любовь к животным, потому что они видят их вблизи и прикасаются к ним). They can also learn how to care for favourite pets in the Pet Care Centre.

Then there are numerous special Highlight events which take place every day, from unforgettable pony rides to feeding times and spectacular animal displays (И потом имеются многочисленные особые мероприятия, которые проходят каждый день, от незабываемых поездок на пони до кормежки и захватывающих выставок животных). You will get to meet keepers and ask them what you are interested in about the animals they care for, as well as the ins and outs of being a keeper at London Zoo (Вы встретите смотрителей и зададите интересующие вас вопросы о животных, о которых они заботятся, а также о всех деталях работы смотрителем в Лондонском зоопарке).

Whatever you decide, you will have a great day. We have left no stone unturned to make sure you do!

Задание 2 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Harry Potter course for university students

Students of Durham University are being given the chance to sign up to what is thought to be the UK’s first course focusing on the world of Harry Potter. Although every English-speaking person in the world knows about Harry Potter books and films, few have thought of using them as a guide to … modern life.

The Durham University module uses the works of JK Rowling A __________ modern society. “Harry Potter and the Age of Illusion” will be available for study next year. So far about 80 undergraduates have signed B __________ a BA degree in Education Studies. Future educationalists will analyse JK Rowling’s fanfiction from various points of view.

A university spokesman said: “This module places the Harry Potter novels in a wider social and cultural context.” He added that a number of themes would be explored, C __________ the classroom, bullying, friendship and solidarity and the ideals of and good citizenship.

The module was created by the head of the Department of Education at Durham University. He said the idea for the new module had appeared in response D __________ body: “It seeks to place the series in its wider social and cultural context and will explore some fundamental issues E __________. You just need to read the academic writing which started F __________ that Harry Potter is worthy of serious study.”

1. up for the optional module, part of
2. such as the moral universe of the school
3. to examine prejudice, citizenship and bullying in
4. including the world of rituals, prejudice and intolerance in
5. to emerge four or five years ago to see
6. such as the response of the writer
7. to growing demand from the student

A-3; B-1; C-4; D-7; E-2; F-5

Harry Potter course for university students

Students of Durham University are being given the chance to sign up to what is thought to be the UK’s first course focusing on the world of Harry Potter. Although every English-speaking person in the world knows about Harry Potter books and films, few have thought of using them as a guide to … modern life.

The Durham University module uses the works of JK Rowling to examine prejudice, citizenship and bullying in modern society (В модуле Даремского университета используются работы Дж Роулинг, чтобы исследовать предрассудки, гражданственность и притеснения в современном обществе). “Harry Potter and the Age of Illusion” will be available for study next year. So far about 80 undergraduates have signed up for the optional module, part of a BA degree in Education Studies (На данный момент около 80 студентов записались на факультативный модуль, который является ступенью к степени бакалавра по педагогике). Future educationalists will analyse JK Rowling’s fanfiction from various points of view.

A university spokesman said: “This module places the Harry Potter novels in a wider social and cultural context.” He added that a number of themes would be explored, including the world of rituals, prejudice and intolerance in the classroom, bullying, friendship and solidarity and the ideals of and good citizenship (Он добавил, что будет исследоваться ряд тем, включая мир ритуалов, предрассудков и нетерпимости в классе, притеснений, дружбы и солидарности, а также идеалов гражданственности).

The module was created by the head of the Department of Education at Durham University. He said the idea for the new module had appeared in response to growing demand from the student body (Он сказал, что идея нового модуля появилась в ответ на растущую потребность студенчества): “It seeks to place the series in its wider social and cultural context and will explore some fundamental issues such as the moral universe of the school (Цель модуля – переложить данную серию (книг) в более широкий социально-культурный контекст и исследовать фундаментальные вещи, такие как моральное пространство школы). You just need to read the academic writing which started to emerge four or five years ago to see that Harry Potter is worthy of serious study (Вам просто необходимо прочесть академические сочинения, которые начали появляться четыре-пять лет назад, чтобы понять, что Гарри Поттер заслуживает серьезного изучения).”

Задание 3 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Egg whites

Health-food crazes change not only the eating habits of a lot of people, but also the supply and demand of food. It has recently become quite popular to order omelettes made with egg whites only, A __________. Because of their supposed health benefits, and because the yolk is high in fat and cholesterol, the whites are in high demand and the yolks are being tossed aside.

And the trend doesn’t just affect omelettes. Health-conscious Americans have moved beyond the yolkfree omelette В ________.

Although not so much of a problem in the UK, as the egg-white craze hasn’t really taken off there yet, the US is facing a shortage of egg whites. Egg suppliers there have noted an increase in the sales price of egg whites to nearly double what it was in the recent past, С _______ .

A curious question is where all the unused yolks go. Considering that it’s such a huge waste, one might wonder how responsible this eating habit is for the world’s food supply. One company that supplies egg whites says that every single yolk that they separate from the egg is sold to other food companies. Still, for restaurants that buy whole eggs and discard the yolks to make their omelettes, D _______.

В школе этого не расскажут:  Спряжение глагола houblonner во французском языке.

On top of that, recent studies have demonstrated that egg yolks are not that bad for you. In fact, the yolks, although fatty and higher in calories, contain all the nutrients, E _______ .

Nonetheless, the egg-white craze may be here for a while. Supporters claim there’s no better way to get the amount of protein an egg white provides, without calories or fat. The only deterrent could possibly be flavour, F _______.

1. and the role they play in raising cholesterol in our bodies is small
2. the bulk of the yolks are seen going down the drain
3. the clear part of the egg which is fat-free and high in protein
4. as egg whites are not known to be full of it
5. to demand egg white-only burritos, sandwiches and shakes
6. the worldwide demand for egg whites seems to be on the rise
7. and supplies of egg whites are at an all-time low

A-3; B-5; C-7; D-2; E-1; F-4

Egg whites

Health-food crazes change not only the eating habits of a lot of people, but also the supply and demand of food. It has recently become quite popular to order omelettes made with egg whites only, the clear part of the egg which is fat-free and high in protein. Because of their supposed health benefits, and because the yolk is high in fat and cholesterol, the whites are in high demand and the yolks are being tossed aside.

And the trend doesn’t just affect omelettes. Health-conscious Americans have moved beyond the yolkfree omelette to demand egg white-only burritos, sandwiches and shakes.

Although not so much of a problem in the UK, as the egg-white craze hasn’t really taken off there yet, the US is facing a shortage of egg whites. Egg suppliers there have noted an increase in the sales price of egg whites to nearly double what it was in the recent past, and supplies of egg whites are at an all-time low.

A curious question is where all the unused yolks go. Considering that it’s such a huge waste, one might wonder how responsible this eating habit is for the world’s food supply. One company that supplies egg whites says that every single yolk that they separate from the egg is sold to other food companies. Still, for restaurants that buy whole eggs and discard the yolks to make their omelettes, the bulk of the yolks are seen going down the drain.

On top of that, recent studies have demonstrated that egg yolks are not that bad for you. In fact, the yolks, although fatty and higher in calories, contain all the nutrients, and the role they play in raising cholesterol in our bodies is small.

Nonetheless, the egg-white craze may be here for a while. Supporters claim there’s no better way to get the amount of protein an egg white provides, without calories or fat. The only deterrent could possibly be flavour, as egg whites are not known to be full of it.

Задание 4 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Hermitage Museum

One of Russia’s crowning achievements is the Hermitage Museum, a complex of large and impressive neoclassical buildings located in St Petersburg. The museum was created in 1764 by Catherine the Great and it contains over 3 million items, A _______ .

As well as housing the Hermitage Museum, the imperial family of Russia made their home on the complex, in the Winter Palace, from 1732 to 1917. It was from this location that the emperors of Russia ruled over lands В ________.

The museum’s massive collection of paintings was started by Catherine the Great, when she purchased either 225 or 317 paintings (sources do not agree) from a merchant in Germany С ________. The paintings included works by Rembrandt, Rubens, van Dyck and Raphael.

The operation of the museum during its early years consisted of hundreds of people employed by the Russian monarchy. The complex was also the location of several important events and festivals held by the Russian royal family D _______ . Together with the large collection of art, the complex became a symbol of Russian pride.

The ownership of the Hermitage Museum, its contents and its buildings passed to the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution of 1917. While some of its possessions were sold secretly, most of the collection remained intact E _______ . Many works were shipped off for protection during the Second World War.

In the 1990s it was revealed that the Hermitage Museum held collections from Germany that had been confiscated by the Red Army. They are an important collection of French Impressionist and post-impressionist artwork F _______ . In 1995 they were displayed for the first time since the war ended.

1. who had compiled a collection initially intended for the king of Prussia
2. and attended by the various nobility of the country
3. including the largest number of paintings of any museum in the world
4. who managed to hide much of the art from invading armies
5. originating from private collections taken during the war
6. and the Soviet government maintained the complex as a public museum
7. that spanned almost one sixth of the Earth’s surface area

A-3; B-7; C-1; D-2; E-6; F-5

Hermitage Museum

One of Russia’s crowning achievements is the Hermitage Museum, a complex of large and impressive neoclassical buildings located in St Petersburg. The museum was created in 1764 by Catherine the Great and it contains over 3 million items, including the largest number of paintings of any museum in the world.

As well as housing the Hermitage Museum, the imperial family of Russia made their home on the complex, in the Winter Palace, from 1732 to 1917. It was from this location that the emperors of Russia ruled over lands that spanned almost one sixth of the Earth’s surface area.

The museum’s massive collection of paintings was started by Catherine the Great, when she purchased either 225 or 317 paintings (sources do not agree) from a merchant in Germany who had compiled a collection initially intended for the king of Prussia. The paintings included works by Rembrandt, Rubens, van Dyck and Raphael.

The operation of the museum during its early years consisted of hundreds of people employed by the Russian monarchy. The complex was also the location of several important events and festivals held by the Russian royal family and attended by the various nobility of the country. Together with the large collection of art, the complex became a symbol of Russian pride.

The ownership of the Hermitage Museum, its contents and its buildings passed to the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution of 1917. While some of its possessions were sold secretly, most of the collection remained intact and the Soviet government maintained the complex as a public museum. Many works were shipped off for protection during the Second World War.

In the 1990s it was revealed that the Hermitage Museum held collections from Germany that had been confiscated by the Red Army. They are an important collection of French Impressionist and post-impressionist artwork originating from private collections taken during the war. In 1995 they were displayed for the first time since the war ended.

Задание 5 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Wales

Wales shares a great deal of its history with the rest of Great Britain, but it has its own distinctive identity that is closer to the Celtic regions of the British Isles, such as Ireland, Scotland and Cornwall, and also to Brittany in northern France. These regions make up the Celtic nations, A _______ .

Wales, like Scotland and England, is considered to be a country within the country of the United Kingdom. This is because the region is distinctly different from other regions in aspects like history and culture, В ________.

Although Wales is represented in the United Kingdom’s House of Commons, the lower house of the UK’s parliament, it is also partly self-governed. Some Welsh people wish for independence, С _______ . Polls show that around 80-90% of Welsh people do not favour separation from the UK.

Nearly everyone in Wales speaks English, but Wales is officially a bilingual country, the other official language being Welsh. Wales is known as Cymru in the Welsh language, pronounced ‘kum-ree’, and the Welsh people are known as Cymry, D _______.

Indeed, the influence of the rest of the UK on Wales has been strong and the use of English so widespread that the Welsh language was feared to be dying out. A law passed in 1993 officially placed the Welsh language on a par with English in the country. Court proceedings can be carried out in Welsh or English, E_______.

Furthermore, there are different dialects and forms of pronunciation of Welsh within the country. Differences are noted between the northern and southern regions, and a combination of English and Welsh, commonly known as ‘Wenglish’, has emerged F _______.

1. which is pronounced in the same way as the country’s name
2. which mixes words, grammar and pronunciation from the two languages
3. of which Wales is an integral and influential part
4. and road signs and public documents are printed in both languages
5. although it doesn’t have embassies and is subject to most UK laws
6. of which a large number of Welsh people approve
7. although support for it is not particularly strong

A-3; B-5; C-7; D-1; E-4; F-2

Wales

Wales shares a great deal of its history with the rest of Great Britain, but it has its own distinctive identity that is closer to the Celtic regions of the British Isles, such as Ireland, Scotland and Cornwall, and also to Brittany in northern France. These regions make up the Celtic nations, of which Wales is an integral and influential part.

Wales, like Scotland and England, is considered to be a country within the country of the United Kingdom. This is because the region is distinctly different from other regions in aspects like history and culture, although it doesn’t have embassies and is subject to most UK laws.

Although Wales is represented in the United Kingdom’s House of Commons, the lower house of the UK’s parliament, it is also partly self-governed. Some Welsh people wish for independence, although support for it is not particularly strong. Polls show that around 80-90% of Welsh people do not favour separation from the UK.

Nearly everyone in Wales speaks English, but Wales is officially a bilingual country, the other official language being Welsh. Wales is known as Cymru in the Welsh language, pronounced ‘kum-ree’, and the Welsh people are known as Cymry, which is pronounced in the same way as the country’s name.

Indeed, the influence of the rest of the UK on Wales has been strong and the use of English so widespread that the Welsh language was feared to be dying out. A law passed in 1993 officially placed the Welsh language on a par with English in the country. Court proceedings can be carried out in Welsh or English, and road signs and public documents are printed in both languages.

Furthermore, there are different dialects and forms of pronunciation of Welsh within the country. Differences are noted between the northern and southern regions, and a combination of English and Welsh, commonly known as ‘Wenglish’, has emerged which mixes words, grammar and pronunciation from the two languages.

Задание 6 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Anatoli Tarasov

It takes a tough coach to lead a team to victory, even though such a coach may bring controversy. This was the case for Anatoli Tarasov, one of ice hockeys greatest coaching legends A ________.

Tarasov, a former ice hockey player himself, was tasked with building an ice hockey team from scratch for the Soviet Union after World War II. At that time, ice hockey was not very popular, but Tarasov had fallen in love with it, was particularly skilful at it В ________.

So, Tarasov founded the ice hockey department at CSKA Moscow, the country’s leading sports club. His early career didn’t see a great deal of success, and he was replaced by a rival coach, Arkady Chernyshev, who didn’t fare much better. However, the two men then joined forces and won consecutive titles for over a decade, С ________.

Tarasov had his own style of training his athletes. He focused heavily on simple drills to perfect specific skills and he required all of his players to be in constant motion during the drills, D _______ .

Tarasov was an ambitious coach, but his ambitions sometimes displeased others. He once marched his team off the rink in protest at a bad call by a referee. This resulted in his removal as coach, and E ______ .

Still intent on being involved with the sport, Tarasov remained a guiding force for the team, often sitting near the coaching bench at subsequent matches. In one particular moment of irritation at witnessing his team gradually losing a match, Tarasov jumped in F _______. His actions led the team to victory. Despite his controversial nature, he is honoured in the Hockey Hall of Fame for his outstanding contribution to the sport.

1. and seemed to be the perfect choice for leading a team
2. a method that seemed unusual to seasoned teams like the Canadians
3. a second-in-command coach was moved forward to replace him
4. who was sometimes the cause of disagreement around the rink
5. who sporting club members felt was a less controversial coach
6. and took the reins from the existing coach
7. which peaked with the victory at the 1972 Olympic Games

A-4; B-1; C-7; D-2; E-3; F-6

Anatoli Tarasov

It takes a tough coach to lead a team to victory, even though such a coach may bring controversy. This was the case for Anatoli Tarasov, one of ice hockeys greatest coaching legends who was sometimes the cause of disagreement around the rink.

Tarasov, a former ice hockey player himself, was tasked with building an ice hockey team from scratch for the Soviet Union after World War II. At that time, ice hockey was not very popular, but Tarasov had fallen in love with it, was particularly skilful at it and seemed to be the perfect choice for leading a team.

So, Tarasov founded the ice hockey department at CSKA Moscow, the country’s leading sports club. His early career didn’t see a great deal of success, and he was replaced by a rival coach, Arkady Chernyshev, who didn’t fare much better. However, the two men then joined forces and won consecutive titles for over a decade, which peaked with the victory at the 1972 Olympic Games.

Tarasov had his own style of training his athletes. He focused heavily on simple drills to perfect specific skills and he required all of his players to be in constant motion during the drills, a method that seemed unusual to seasoned teams like the Canadians.

Tarasov was an ambitious coach, but his ambitions sometimes displeased others. He once marched his team off the rink in protest at a bad call by a referee. This resulted in his removal as coach, and a second-in-command coach was moved forward to replace him.

Still intent on being involved with the sport, Tarasov remained a guiding force for the team, often sitting near the coaching bench at subsequent matches. In one particular moment of irritation at witnessing his team gradually losing a match, Tarasov jumped in and took the reins from the existing coach. His actions led the team to victory. Despite his controversial nature, he is honoured in the Hockey Hall of Fame for his outstanding contribution to the sport.

Задание 7 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

The new wind turbine

Green energy has become a focus in technological advancement, as scientists are looking for ways to create or harness energy without damaging the planet. The wind turbine is one of the biggest breakthroughs in renewable energy, and as a result, A _______.

Although the traditional wind turbine has shown great benefits, it is not without flaws. One of the obvious problems is that some days are just not that windy; however, in the higher layers of our atmosphere, it is always windy. Scientists have been watching this never-ending power source very closely, В ________.

So, they’ve designed new types of wind turbines, known as airborne wind turbines, which can reach this higher layer. One specific model is known as BAT, or buoyant airborne turbine, which is similar to a giant balloon. It’s filled with helium, which allows it to rise high in the sky, С ________.

In the centre of the balloon is a turbine, and the balloon itself is tied to the ground with cables that carry the turbine’s electricity down to Earth. Extremely light and portable, D ______ .

The company that has developed this technology says it will be the answer to rural power needs. People who live in remote areas often can’t take advantage of renewable energy because setting up traditional wind turbines is very costly. And if they can’t even connect to the national grid, as is the case in some places in Alaska, E _______.

Hopefully with this new technology, more people will be able to live a greener life. The BAT is just one type of airborne wind turbine; F _______ , or at least to provide a variety of turbines to suit different needs.

1. and some have described it as looking like an inflatable doughnut
2. they have to run expensive petrol-powered generators
3. there are fewer wind turbines in this location for people to use
4. and they’re looking to discover a way to make better use of it
5. they can be seen dotted across landscapes around the world
6. there are more being developed in the search for the perfect design
7. the balloon can be set up in remote places far away from electricity grids

A-5; B-4; C-1; D-7; E-2; F-6

The new wind turbine

Green energy has become a focus in technological advancement, as scientists are looking for ways to create or harness energy without damaging the planet. The wind turbine is one of the biggest breakthroughs in renewable energy, and as a result, they can be seen dotted across landscapes around the world.

Although the traditional wind turbine has shown great benefits, it is not without flaws. One of the obvious problems is that some days are just not that windy; however, in the higher layers of our atmosphere, it is always windy. Scientists have been watching this never-ending power source very closely, and they’re looking to discover a way to make better use of it.

So, they’ve designed new types of wind turbines, known as airborne wind turbines, which can reach this higher layer. One specific model is known as BAT, or buoyant airborne turbine, which is similar to a giant balloon. It’s filled with helium, which allows it to rise high in the sky, and some have described it as looking like an inflatable doughnut.

In the centre of the balloon is a turbine, and the balloon itself is tied to the ground with cables that carry the turbine’s electricity down to Earth. Extremely light and portable, the balloon can be set up in remote places far away from electricity grids.

The company that has developed this technology says it will be the answer to rural power needs. People who live in remote areas often can’t take advantage of renewable energy because setting up traditional wind turbines is very costly. And if they can’t even connect to the national grid, as is the case in some places in Alaska, they have to run expensive petrol-powered generators.

Hopefully with this new technology, more people will be able to live a greener life. The BAT is just one type of airborne wind turbine; there are more being developed in the search for the perfect design, or at least to provide a variety of turbines to suit different needs.

Задание 8 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Pavlovsk Palace

Pavlovsk Palace near St Petersburg has a remarkable story. In its over 200 years of existence, it has been ravaged by fire, A _______. But its survival of World War II is perhaps the most interesting period in its history

The palace was built in the late 18th century on land that belonged to Catherine the Great. She had passed the land down to her son, Paul I, and his wife, Maria, upon the birth of their son, Alexander I of Russia. Scottish architect Charles Cameron, a lover of Greek and Roman architecture, was hired to design the palace. His relationship with Catherine the Great was quite close, В ______ .

The three ol them had competing interests tor the interiors, each one disliking the others’ tastes. Eventually the palace was finished, and after Catherine the Great’s passing, Paul I made it the official royal residence. His death in 1801 meant Alexander I would become emperor, С _______ .

The palace stayed in royal hands up until the Russian Revolution, when the royal family fled the country They left the palace to Alexander Polovotsoff, a prominent museum director, who fought to have it saved as a museum. His success meant that the palace survived, D _______ .

Just before its seizure, the museum staff hurried to save the art contained in the museum. Furniture was dismantled and shipped off, E _______ .

Perhaps the cleverest trick involved the statues. They were too heavy to evacuate, so the staff buried them in the gardens. They sank them three metres into the ground, F _______ . They were right; after the occupation was over, the statues still remained.

1. occupied by foreign troops and nearly completely destroyed
2. and large antiquities were stored in a basement and walled up
3. but it would be seized by the Germans years later and used for military purposes
4. and he designated the house as his mother Maria’s official residence
5. believing the palace would best serve the country as a museum
6. but clashes would erupt between him, Paul and Maria over style issues
7. thinking the Germans wouldn’t dig that deep to look for them

A-1; B-6; C-4; D-3; E-2; F-7

Pavlovsk Palace

Pavlovsk Palace near St Petersburg has a remarkable story. In its over 200 years of existence, it has been ravaged by fire, occupied by foreign troops and nearly completely destroyed. But its survival of World War II is perhaps the most interesting period in its history

The palace was built in the late 18th century on land that belonged to Catherine the Great. She had passed the land down to her son, Paul I, and his wife, Maria, upon the birth of their son, Alexander I of Russia. Scottish architect Charles Cameron, a lover of Greek and Roman architecture, was hired to design the palace. His relationship with Catherine the Great was quite close, but clashes would erupt between him, Paul and Maria over style issues.

The three ol them had competing interests tor the interiors, each one disliking the others’ tastes. Eventually the palace was finished, and after Catherine the Great’s passing, Paul I made it the official royal residence. His death in 1801 meant Alexander I would become emperor, and he designated the house as his mother Maria’s official residence.

The palace stayed in royal hands up until the Russian Revolution, when the royal family fled the country They left the palace to Alexander Polovotsoff, a prominent museum director, who fought to have it saved as a museum. His success meant that the palace survived, but it would be seized by the Germans years later and used for military purposes.

Just before its seizure, the museum staff hurried to save the art contained in the museum. Furniture was dismantled and shipped off, and large antiquities were stored in a basement and walled up.

Perhaps the cleverest trick involved the statues. They were too heavy to evacuate, so the staff buried them in the gardens. They sank them three metres into the ground, thinking the Germans wouldn’t dig that deep to look for them. They were right; after the occupation was over, the statues still remained.

Задание 9 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Indian food in the UK

The British have had a close relationship with Indian food for centuries. The colonial ties between India and the UK began in the early 1600s, A _______ .

In the late 1700s it wasn’t uncommon to see coffee houses serving curries alongside traditional British meals. The first dedicated Indian restaurant opened its doors in London in 1809, although it struggled due to peoples preferences to eat at home during that period. The owner ended up closing its doors after about three decades of service B _______ .

When Queen Victoria staffed her kitchen with Indian cooks, popularity for the cuisine really took off. Cookbooks taught British homemakers how С _______ .

There was then a cooling-off period tor this spicy fare. A revolt in India against British rule in 1857 meant curry wouldn’t be so fashionable for a while. In the years after that, its popularity would ebb and flow, and by the late 1800s, D _______ .

In the early 20th century, many people from the Indian subcontinent were migrating to Britain, and they bought up some of the run-down restaurants and transformed them into curry houses. Aware of peoples eating habits, Bangladeshi restaurateurs stayed open until late into the evening E ______ . Indian food was popular again.

Today, there are hundreds of Indian restaurants across the UK. Some dishes have been modified to a certain extent, such as British versions which introduce beef into the recipe, F ______ . Overall, the cuisine has become such a mainstay of the British diet that chicken tikka masala is referred to as a national dish.

1. French rather than Indian cooking was popular in British kitchens
2. an ingredient rarely used in India because many sub-cultures don’t allow it
3. due to some versions of Indian cuisine becoming popular for breakfast
4. due to the struggle of paying his bills while suffering from a lack of business
5. and the British soldiers in India craved the food when they returned home
6. to catch people when they were returning home from a night out
7. to make the most flavourful Indian dishes in their own homes

A-5; B-4; C-7; D-1; E-6; F-2

Indian food in the UK

The British have had a close relationship with Indian food for centuries. The colonial ties between India and the UK began in the early 1600s, and the British soldiers in India craved the food when they returned home.

In the late 1700s it wasn’t uncommon to see coffee houses serving curries alongside traditional British meals. The first dedicated Indian restaurant opened its doors in London in 1809, although it struggled due to peoples preferences to eat at home during that period. The owner ended up closing its doors after about three decades of service due to the struggle of paying his bills while suffering from a lack of business.

When Queen Victoria staffed her kitchen with Indian cooks, popularity for the cuisine really took off. Cookbooks taught British homemakers how to make the most flavourful Indian dishes in their own homes.

There was then a cooling-off period tor this spicy fare. A revolt in India against British rule in 1857 meant curry wouldn’t be so fashionable for a while. In the years after that, its popularity would ebb and flow, and by the late 1800s, French rather than Indian cooking was popular in British kitchens.

In the early 20th century, many people from the Indian subcontinent were migrating to Britain, and they bought up some of the run-down restaurants and transformed them into curry houses. Aware of peoples eating habits, Bangladeshi restaurateurs stayed open until late into the evening to catch people when they were returning home from a night out. Indian food was popular again.

Today, there are hundreds of Indian restaurants across the UK. Some dishes have been modified to a certain extent, such as British versions which introduce beef into the recipe, an ingredient rarely used in India because many sub-cultures don’t allow it. Overall, the cuisine has become such a mainstay of the British diet that chicken tikka masala is referred to as a national dish.

Задание 10 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Global financial crises

A global financial crisis affects people all over the world, but to very different degrees. Some people are lucky enough only to hear about it, while others are plunged into economic uncertainty, A _______ .

A crisis occasionally arises from sudden bad decisions, but the cause is usually a collection of bad policies operated over an extended period. The financial crisis of 2008 was a result of a loosening of rules among banks. Changes in those regulations began during the 1980s, В ______ financial transactions with little supervision.

The system of regulation became one of trust; it was up to the banks to behave wisely, and the governments would stay out of it. The regulation of banks was, in a sense, left up to the free market C ______ . It allowed for transactions to flow more freely, which did in fact help economies grow during the 1980s and 1990s.

When the financial markets first ran into trouble, large banking institutions failed altogether, D _______ . A small number of the worlds most wealthy people suffered greatly. But overall, the middle class and the poor suffered the worst of the crisis.

The 2020 Eurozone crisis is thought to be connected to the 2008 one. Governments that had borrowed enormous amounts to pay for problems caused two years earlier suddenly found themselves unable to support the debt. The Eurozone crisis was as severe as the one in 2008 E _______. More people would suffer as a result.

There is little that can be done to immediately fix a global financial crisis. Individuals can prepare for such an event by F _______ . Naturally, everyone must fight to make sure governments put sensible banking policies in place before problems occur.

1. keeping money in savings and making sure they stay out of debt
2. and many policymakers felt this would be sufficient
3. and added yet another layer of uncertainty to world financial markets
4. resulting in the loss of their job, home or livelihood
5. which many people had saved for a number of years
6. which caused a domino effect that spread around the world
7. a decade when governments decided to let banks carry out

A-4; B-7; C-2; D-6; E-3; F-1

Global financial crises

A global financial crisis affects people all over the world, but to very different degrees. Some people are lucky enough only to hear about it, while others are plunged into economic uncertainty, resulting in the loss of their job, home or livelihood.

A crisis occasionally arises from sudden bad decisions, but the cause is usually a collection of bad policies operated over an extended period. The financial crisis of 2008 was a result of a loosening of rules among banks. Changes in those regulations began during the 1980s, a decade when governments decided to let banks carry out financial transactions with little supervision.

The system of regulation became one of trust; it was up to the banks to behave wisely, and the governments would stay out of it. The regulation of banks was, in a sense, left up to the free market and many policymakers felt this would be sufficient. It allowed for transactions to flow more freely, which did in fact help economies grow during the 1980s and 1990s.

When the financial markets first ran into trouble, large banking institutions failed altogether, which caused a domino effect that spread around the world. A small number of the worlds most wealthy people suffered greatly. But overall, the middle class and the poor suffered the worst of the crisis.

The 2020 Eurozone crisis is thought to be connected to the 2008 one. Governments that had borrowed enormous amounts to pay for problems caused two years earlier suddenly found themselves unable to support the debt. The Eurozone crisis was as severe as the one in 2008 and added yet another layer of uncertainty to world financial markets. More people would suffer as a result.

There is little that can be done to immediately fix a global financial crisis. Individuals can prepare for such an event by keeping money in savings and making sure they stay out of debt. Naturally, everyone must fight to make sure governments put sensible banking policies in place before problems occur.

Задание 11 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Konstantin Melnikov

Early 20th century art movements made a sharp break from the artistic styles of the previous century One such movement gave us the term ‘avant-garde’, A _______ .

During this period in Russian culture, the architect Konstantin Melnikov established himself within the avant-garde movement. Born in Moscow in 1890, he started out as an icon painter. A chance meeting with famous engineer Vladimir M. Chaplin, who asked Melnikov to work for him, gave him his golden opportunity in life. Chaplin was so impressed with Melnikov’s abilities В _______ .

After twelve years of study, Melnikov began designing buildings in the neoclassical style before moving on to more contemporary work. He was selected to design the Soviet pavilion at the 1925 Paris Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Art. His pavilion was widely considered one of the most progressive buildings at the exposition. Constructed using the most efficient methods, С _______ .

In the late 1920s Melnikov designed a series of garages. A feature of the design allowed for slanted parking, in which a vehicle would pull in diagonally D _______ . The floors of the garage were shaped like a parallelogram and the exterior was given an avant-garde appearance.

Melnikov later designed a number of buildings used by workers’ unions. He included the use of overhangs, E _______ . This gave a building a very dramatic appearance that seemingly defied gravity.

Melnikov’s private residence has become one of his masterpieces. The property consists of two wide cylindrical towers which have been stuck together. The biggest room features 38 hexagonal shaped windows, F _______ .

1. which are structures that extend from higher floors out beyond the lower ones
2. and his style often did not conform to any precise rules of architecture
3. giving the house an unusual exterior appearance while allowing light to flood the interior
4. and then be able to leave the space by simply pulling out
5. which today is used to describe anything experimental and progressive
6. it was built in only four weeks by just ten workers
7. that he funded his education at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

A-5; B-7; C-6; D-4; E-1; F-3

Konstantin Melnikov

Early 20th century art movements made a sharp break from the artistic styles of the previous century One such movement gave us the term ‘avant-garde’, which today is used to describe anything experimental and progressive.

During this period in Russian culture, the architect Konstantin Melnikov established himself within the avant-garde movement. Born in Moscow in 1890, he started out as an icon painter. A chance meeting with famous engineer Vladimir M. Chaplin, who asked Melnikov to work for him, gave him his golden opportunity in life. Chaplin was so impressed with Melnikov’s abilities that he funded his education at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.

After twelve years of study, Melnikov began designing buildings in the neoclassical style before moving on to more contemporary work. He was selected to design the Soviet pavilion at the 1925 Paris Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Art. His pavilion was widely considered one of the most progressive buildings at the exposition. Constructed using the most efficient methods, it was built in only four weeks by just ten workers.

В школе этого не расскажут:  Спряжение глагола coacher во французском языке.

In the late 1920s Melnikov designed a series of garages. A feature of the design allowed for slanted parking, in which a vehicle would pull in diagonally and then be able to leave the space by simply pulling out. The floors of the garage were shaped like a parallelogram and the exterior was given an avant-garde appearance.

Melnikov later designed a number of buildings used by workers’ unions. He included the use of overhangs, which are structures that extend from higher floors out beyond the lower ones. This gave a building a very dramatic appearance that seemingly defied gravity.

Melnikov’s private residence has become one of his masterpieces. The property consists of two wide cylindrical towers which have been stuck together. The biggest room features 38 hexagonal shaped windows, giving the house an unusual exterior appearance while allowing light to flood the interior.

Задание 12 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Leaning Big Ben

Is Big Ben becoming the British version of the Leaning Tower of Pisa? Surveys of the famous UK landmark in recent years have proven what can barely be seen by the naked eye. Although it is far smaller than the Tower of Pisa’s tilt of almost four degrees, Big Ben is A _______ .

Officials in government seem to be brushing off concerns that the clock tower is in danger of collapsing. They may be right. Considering the tower in Pisa has been leaning for centuries and has yet to fall, В ________.

If anything, Big Bens ever-so-slight lean is a fascinating sight to see, if you can in fact notice it. An onlooker standing in Parliament Square looking head on at the tower might perceive an extremely minor lean to the left С _______ .

The government is not entirely unconcerned about the stability of the tower. However they state that, in light of extensive structural surveys of the building, no immediate risk is present, D ________.

The tower is leaning in part due to the construction of an underground railway line beneath the structure as well as a car park. In fact, though, many buildings, regardless of what structures are underneath, undergo changes as they age. Most old buildings have a few cracks in them, and E ________.

This isn’t the first structural issue the tower has encountered in its over 150-year life. In 1976, the weights that control the workings of the clock snapped off and fell down the clock shaft. The clock actually exploded inside F _______ . Luckily no one was hurt, as the accident happened at 4 am.

1. towards a faster, more economical way of repairing the tower
2. in fact, the Houses of Parliament are cracking a bit themselves
3. towards Bridge Street rather than towards the Houses of Parliament
4. and repairs took nearly nine months to be completed
5. meaning building reinforcements can wait until after the next elections
6. in fact leaning by about 0.26 degrees, according to reports
7. worrying about Big Ben’s immediate demise is likely to be a waste of energy

A-6; B-7; C-3; D-5; E-2; F-4

Leaning Big Ben

Is Big Ben becoming the British version of the Leaning Tower of Pisa? Surveys of the famous UK landmark in recent years have proven what can barely be seen by the naked eye. Although it is far smaller than the Tower of Pisa’s tilt of almost four degrees, Big Ben is in fact leaning by about 0.26 degrees, according to reports.

Officials in government seem to be brushing off concerns that the clock tower is in danger of collapsing. They may be right. Considering the tower in Pisa has been leaning for centuries and has yet to fall, worrying about Big Ben’s immediate demise is likely to be a waste of energy.

If anything, Big Bens ever-so-slight lean is a fascinating sight to see, if you can in fact notice it. An onlooker standing in Parliament Square looking head on at the tower might perceive an extremely minor lean to the left towards Bridge Street rather than towards the Houses of Parliament.

The government is not entirely unconcerned about the stability of the tower. However they state that, in light of extensive structural surveys of the building, no immediate risk is present, meaning building reinforcements can wait until after the next elections.

The tower is leaning in part due to the construction of an underground railway line beneath the structure as well as a car park. In fact, though, many buildings, regardless of what structures are underneath, undergo changes as they age. Most old buildings have a few cracks in them, and in fact, the Houses of Parliament are cracking a bit themselves.

This isn’t the first structural issue the tower has encountered in its over 150-year life. In 1976, the weights that control the workings of the clock snapped off and fell down the clock shaft. The clock actually exploded inside and repairs took nearly nine months to be completed. Luckily no one was hurt, as the accident happened at 4 am.

Задание 13 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Petrushka

Petrushka is a character from Russian folk puppetry. Traditionally dressed in red, with a red kolpak, or pointed hat, Petrushka was a humorous fellow A _______.

Petrushka first came to life, so to speak, sometime in the 18th century during Empress Anna Ioannovna’s reign. In the Empress’s court was a man named Pietro-Mira Pedrillo, of Italian descent, В ________. It was this man’s character and style that became the basis for Petrushka. In fact, the name Petrushka is a diminutive form of the name Pyotr (Peter, or Pietro in Italian).

In the beginning, Petrushka was intended for an adult audience. The plots of the puppet’s theatrical plays were about a variety of common, meaningful occurrences in a Russian’s life: a visit to a medical practitioner, learning military service, or a marriage ceremony, to name a few. The plots employed the use of interactive humour С ________.

Over time, puppet theatre moved away from adult-themed entertainment and towards children’s fare. Because of this, some of the long-running and less savoury characters had to be retired. Still, the humour of the shows was considered sharp-witted enough D ________.

An interesting aspect of Petrushka, as with other puppet shows, is his unusual voice, made to sound like a funny whistle, or kazoo. This would add a buzzing sound to the character’s speech, E ________. Mr Punch of Punch and Judy shows in the UK is one character with a similar voice.

Petrushka was famously made into a ballet in 1911 by Russian ballet composer Igor Stravinsky. The ballet tells a coming-to-life story of the puppet F ________.

1. to provide entertainment for both children and their parents
2. and follows his journeys as he discovers his thoughts and emotions
3. to force many puppeteers to seek alternative sources of income
4. who entertained the empress during leisurely afternoons
5. which could also be heard in famous puppet shows of other countries
6. whose persona was based on the personality of a court jester
7. which allowed the audience to participate in the various shows

A-6; B-4; C-7; D-1; E-5; F-2

Petrushka is a character from Russian folk puppetry. Traditionally dressed in red, with a red kolpak, or pointed hat, Petrushka was a humorous fellow whose persona was based on the personality of a court jester.

Petrushka first came to life, so to speak, sometime in the 18th century during Empress Anna Ioannovna’s reign. In the Empress’s court was a man named Pietro-Mira Pedrillo, of Italian descent, who entertained the empress during leisurely afternoons. It was this man’s character and style that became the basis for Petrushka. In fact, the name Petrushka is a diminutive form of the name Pyotr (Peter, or Pietro in Italian).

In the beginning, Petrushka was intended for an adult audience. The plots of the puppet’s theatrical plays were about a variety of common, meaningful occurrences in a Russian’s life: a visit to a medical practitioner, learning military service, or a marriage ceremony, to name a few. The plots employed the use of interactive humour which allowed the audience to participate in the various show.

Over time, puppet theatre moved away from adult-themed entertainment and towards children’s fare. Because of this, some of the long-running and less savoury characters had to be retired. Still, the humour of the shows was considered sharp-witted enough to provide entertainment for both children and their parents.

An interesting aspect of Petrushka, as with other puppet shows, is his unusual voice, made to sound like a funny whistle, or kazoo. This would add a buzzing sound to the character’s speech, which could also be heard in famous puppet shows of other countries. Mr Punch of Punch and Judy shows in the UK is one character with a similar voice.

Petrushka was famously made into a ballet in 1911 by Russian ballet composer Igor Stravinsky. The ballet tells a coming-to-life story of the puppet and follows his journeys as he discovers his thoughts and emotions.

Задание 14 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

31 August 1997

I will never forget what I was doing when I heard about the death of Princess Diana. It was Sunday morning and A ________. I got up and made myself a cup of coffee. It was about ten past seven. At that time there is usually some farming news on the radio. On Sundays there are also religious programmes. I don’t usually listen to the radio early on Sunday mornings but I switched it on.
A woman in the studio was asking questions and a man was answering them by telephone. The man said: ‘We must think about the children at this tragic time.’ Tragic? What was he thinking about? B ________ and a few seconds later the woman said: ‘We have changed this morning’s programmes to bring you news of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales.’ I felt a terrible shock and C ________. That morning I telephoned about 25 people but D ________. We didn’t know what to do. Eventually my sister and I decided to go to Kensington Palace, where Diana lived.
E ________, there were about a thousand of people there. Some of them were putting flowers at the palace gates. Others were standing quietly in Kensington Gardens. A lot of people were crying and embracing each other. There were a lot of journalists and photographers. My sister was very angry F ________. ‘Go away!’ she shouted at one of them. ‘This is all your fault!’

1. when we arrived
2. I listen more careful
3. when she saw them
4. I couldn’t sleep
5. everyone was in deep shock
6. I was doing nothing
7. I couldn’t believe it

A-4; B-2; C-7; D-5; E-3; F-1

31 August 1997

I will never forget what I was doing when I heard about the death of Princess Diana. It was Sunday morning and I couldn’t sleep. I got up and made myself a cup of coffee. It was about ten past seven. At that time there is usually some farming news on the radio. On Sundays there are also religious programmes. I don’t usually listen to the radio early on Sunday mornings but I switched it on.
A woman in the studio was asking questions and a man was answering them by telephone. The man said: ‘We must think about the children at this tragic time.’ Tragic? What was he thinking about? I listen more careful and a few seconds later the woman said: ‘We have changed this morning’s programmes to bring you news of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales.’ I felt a terrible shock and I couldn’t believe it. That morning I telephoned about 25 people but everyone was in deep shock. We didn’t know what to do. Eventually my sister and I decided to go to Kensington Palace, where Diana lived.
When she saw them, there were about a thousand of people there. Some of them were putting flowers at the palace gates. Others were standing quietly in Kensington Gardens. A lot of people were crying and embracing each other. There were a lot of journalists and photographers. My sister was very angry when we arrived. ‘Go away!’ she shouted at one of them. ‘This is all your fault!’

Задание 15 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria in 1756. His father was a great violinist and composer. Wolfgang showed an interest in music from a very early age. Leonard encouraged him to learn the harpsichord and from the first day, A ________. His sister Maria Anna was also a fine musician. In 1765 Leopold took his two children on a performance tour of Munich and Vienna. Mozart soon became well-known in all Austria.
Everywhere, B ________. He could play the piano and violin as well as the harpsichord. At the age of 11 he was writing keyboard pieces, oratories, symphonies and operas. His first major work was performed in Milan in 1770, when he was still only 14. He was a great hero for young people, who whistled the tunes from The Marriage of Figaro, C ________.
The Archbishop of Salzburg heard about the young Mozart and invited him to be his orchestra Konzertmeister when he was still only fifteen. The world was at Mozart’s feet. He was writing a huge amount of music and D ________. He worked in Salzburg for nearly ten years but he didn’t like the archbishop. The composer was restless and needed a change.
In 1781 he left his post and moved to Vienna. He loved Vienna and E ________. Other composers asked him to teach them. His first opera, The Abduction from the Seraglio, was a hit. His fame spread.
In 1782 he met Constance Weber and asked her to marry him. Life wasn’t easy after their marriage. Mozart was a poor businessman, and he never had enough money. For the next ten years, his music was not always popular, and he became poorer and poorer. In 1788 he stopped performing in public but continued to compose. A nobleman asked him to compose a requiem. His financial problems were over but he was already a very sick man and he died F ________.
When he died in 1791 at the age of thirty-five, he was buried in a pauper’s grave.

1. was in great demand as a performer and a composer
2. before he could finish the piece
3. each piece of music was superb
4. the boy showed incredible talent
5. earning enough money to live well
6. people were astonished by his musical talent
7. when they walked down the streets

A-4; B-6; C-7; D-5; E-1; F-2

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria in 1756. His father was a great violinist and composer. Wolfgang showed an interest in music from a very early age. Leonard encouraged him to learn the harpsichord and from the first day, the boy showed incredible talent. His sister Maria Anna was also a fine musician. In 1765 Leopold took his two children on a performance tour of Munich and Vienna. Mozart soon became well-known in all Austria.
Everywhere, people were astonished by his musical talent. He could play the piano and violin as well as the harpsichord. At the age of 11 he was writing keyboard pieces, oratories, symphonies and operas. His first major work was performed in Milan in 1770, when he was still only 14. He was a great hero for young people, who whistled the tunes from The Marriage of Figaro, when they walked down the streets.
The Archbishop of Salzburg heard about the young Mozart and invited him to be his orchestra Konzertmeister when he was still only fifteen. The world was at Mozart’s feet. He was writing a huge amount of music and earning enough money to live well. He worked in Salzburg for nearly ten years but he didn’t like the archbishop. The composer was restless and needed a change.
In 1781 he left his post and moved to Vienna. He loved Vienna and was in great demand as a performer and a composer. Other composers asked him to teach them. His first opera, The Abduction from the Seraglio, was a hit. His fame spread.
In 1782 he met Constance Weber and asked her to marry him. Life wasn’t easy after their marriage. Mozart was a poor businessman, and he never had enough money. For the next ten years, his music was not always popular, and he became poorer and poorer. In 1788 he stopped performing in public but continued to compose. A nobleman asked him to compose a requiem. His financial problems were over but he was already a very sick man and he died before he could finish the piece.
When he died in 1791 at the age of thirty-five, he was buried in a pauper’s grave.

Задание 16 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Second Chance

The golfer put his ball on the tee. He looked at the flag, swung the club, and the ball flew into the air. But it fell short of green and landed ‘plop’ in a lake. Jim Reid smiled. ‘It’s a nice sound, isn’t it?’ he said. Jim likes going to golf courses. And why not? He has recently sold his company for $5 million A ________ and money to do exactly what he wants.
But it hasn’t always been so. Jim started out in Oklahoma, B ________ where he worked as a surveyor for Walt Disney World for ten years. In his free time he used to go scuba-diving, looking for treasure among the shipwrecks that had lain for centuries around the Florida coast. Then one day he had a go at diving in a different place and made a discovery C ________. When he went home that day, he talked the matter over with his wife, Beverley. It seemed like a crazy idea and Jim would have to give up his job but they decided to go for it.
‘It was a bit embarrassing at first when people asked me what I did for a living,’ says Jim, ‘D ________. Some of the places are over 15 metres deep. You’re down there in the dark for hours with the snakes E ________ ‘ Stepping on broken glass and sharp pieces of metal was a constant hazard and Jim was once struck by lightning while underwater. But the gamble paid off. In fact, the new venture was successful beyond their wildest dreams F ________ and Beverley were multi-millionares.

1. and it wasn’t easy to explain
2. and the eels and your imagination
3. and ten years later Jim
4. and then in 1971 he moved to Florida
5. and have made money unusual way
6. and now he has plenty of time
7. that was to change his life

A-6; B-4; C-7; D-1; E-2; F-3

Second Chance

The golfer put his ball on the tee. He looked at the flag, swung the club, and the ball flew into the air. But it fell short of green and landed ‘plop’ in a lake. Jim Reid smiled. ‘It’s a nice sound, isn’t it?’ he said. Jim likes going to golf courses. And why not? He has recently sold his company for $5 million and now he has plenty of time and money to do exactly what he wants.
But it hasn’t always been so. Jim started out in Oklahoma, and then in 1971 he moved to Florida where he worked as a surveyor for Walt Disney World for ten years. In his free time he used to go scuba-diving, looking for treasure among the shipwrecks that had lain for centuries around the Florida coast. Then one day he had a go at diving in a different place and made a discovery that was to change his life. When he went home that day, he talked the matter over with his wife, Beverley. It seemed like a crazy idea and Jim would have to give up his job but they decided to go for it.
‘It was a bit embarrassing at first when people asked me what I did for a living,’ says Jim, ‘and it wasn’t easy to explain. Some of the places are over 15 metres deep. You’re down there in the dark for hours with the snakes and the eels and your imagination‘ Stepping on broken glass and sharp pieces of metal was a constant hazard and Jim was once struck by lightning while underwater. But the gamble paid off. In fact, the new venture was successful beyond their wildest dreams and ten years later Jim and Beverley were multi-millionares.

Задание 17 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Barbie, the glamorous blonde doll beloved by little girls around the world, is A ________. She is also the most long-lived toy on the market, a fact that was celebrated throughout the world when she recently had her 40th birthday.
But in a tiny village in Bavaria there was no celebration, only bitterness and regret. In the Hausser home Rolf and Lily ignored the global celebrations B ________, as they have done so many times over the past four decades, about how badly they have been treated by history, or, to be more accurate, by Barbie’s secret history. Like many stars, Barbie is not what she seems. Not only is she older than her official age but Barbie is not her real name, what’s more, she isn’t even American, she’s German.
Barbie’s real name is in fact Lili. She is 45, not 40, and was born in a small town near Nuremberg. The secret story of the Barbie doll is about small-town naivety against big business determination. Above all, it is C ________, a man who has been erased from Barbie’s history so completely that only a few people in the world know that he was the true creator of the Barbie doll. But instead of making a fortune when she became a worldwide success, Rolf Hausser lost everything.
It was in 1952 that Lili was born, D ________, as a cartoon character for the daily German newspaper Bild Zeitung. Their cartoonist Beuthin had the idea of a girl who was sexy, E ________ with a snub nose and a face like an angel.
She was named Lili, and by 1955 she was so popular that Beuthin suggested that a doll should be made as a present for visitors to the newspaper. After many attempts to find the right toymaker, he finally found Rolf Hausser, the son of a famous toy manufacturer, who together with his brother Kurt had set up a very successful toy company called O&M Hausser. Rolf was fascinated by the idea of making a doll F ________, and he agreed to try.
Lili the doll went on the market on August 12, 1955, and became an overnight success.

1. in her first incarnation
2. pointed out the Lili doll
3. an icon of American femininity
4. but essentially innocent
5. and instead complained bitterly
6. with the shape and curves of a mature woman
7. a story of the tragedy of bitter old man

A-3; B-5; C-7; D-1; E-4; F-6

Barbie, the glamorous blonde doll beloved by little girls around the world, is an icon of American femininity. She is also the most long-lived toy on the market, a fact that was celebrated throughout the world when she recently had her 40th birthday.
But in a tiny village in Bavaria there was no celebration, only bitterness and regret. In the Hausser home Rolf and Lily ignored the global celebrations and instead complained bitterly, as they have done so many times over the past four decades, about how badly they have been treated by history, or, to be more accurate, by Barbie’s secret history. Like many stars, Barbie is not what she seems. Not only is she older than her official age but Barbie is not her real name, what’s more, she isn’t even American, she’s German.
Barbie’s real name is in fact Lili. She is 45, not 40, and was born in a small town near Nuremberg. The secret story of the Barbie doll is about small-town naivety against big business determination. Above all, it is a story of the tragedy of bitter old man, a man who has been erased from Barbie’s history so completely that only a few people in the world know that he was the true creator of the Barbie doll. But instead of making a fortune when she became a worldwide success, Rolf Hausser lost everything.
It was in 1952 that Lili was born, in her first incarnation, as a cartoon character for the daily German newspaper Bild Zeitung. Their cartoonist Beuthin had the idea of a girl who was sexy, but essentially innocent with a snub nose and a face like an angel.
She was named Lili, and by 1955 she was so popular that Beuthin suggested that a doll should be made as a present for visitors to the newspaper. After many attempts to find the right toymaker, he finally found Rolf Hausser, the son of a famous toy manufacturer, who together with his brother Kurt had set up a very successful toy company called O&M Hausser. Rolf was fascinated by the idea of making a doll with the shape and curves of a mature woman, and he agreed to try.
Lili the doll went on the market on August 12, 1955, and became an overnight success.

Задание 18 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Why they came.

Major changes in the pattern of immigration have been caused by wars, revolutions, periods of starvation, persecutions, religious intoleration, and in short, by any number of disasters A ________ America was a better place to be. More than a million Irish, for instance, immigrated to America between 1846 and 1851 in order to escape starvation and disease in Ireland. B ________, large number of other Europeans fled political persecution. In the 1870-s another wave of refugees left the political turmoil of eastern and southern Europe to seek freedom and a future in America. The largest streams of European immigrants came between 1900 and 1920, that is before, after and during World War I. At other times, for example, C ________, smaller numbers of immigrants came to the US. Since the 1960-s more and more people have fled the poverty and wars in Asia and Latin America in the hope of finding a better life in the United States.
There is, of course, D ________ and racial variety, one that Americans, more than other people, are aware of. The first slaves brought to what is today the United States arrived in Virginia on a board of a Dutch ship in 1619. On the eve of the American Revolution E ________ what was shortly to be the United States of America. In 1776 probably about a fifth of all inhabitants in the British colonies in America were Negro slaves.
Between 1777 and 1804 all states in the new republic north of Maryland abolished slavery. However, neither the North nor the South would escape the grave social, economic, political and moral problems F ________. Although the Civil War (1861-1865) brought the end to slavery in all of the states, discrimination against Blacks would continue.

1. during the Depression and during World War II
2. that are the heritage of slavery
3. which led to believe that
4. are not welcomed by all Americans
5. another side to American’s ethnic pluralism
6. during the same period of time
7. slavery was already firmly established in

A-3; B-6; C-1; D-5; E-7; F-2

Why they came.

Major changes in the pattern of immigration have been caused by wars, revolutions, periods of starvation, persecutions, religious intoleration, and in short, by any number of disasters which led to believe that America was a better place to be. More than a million Irish, for instance, immigrated to America between 1846 and 1851 in order to escape starvation and disease in Ireland. During the same period of time, large number of other Europeans fled political persecution. In the 1870-s another wave of refugees left the political turmoil of eastern and southern Europe to seek freedom and a future in America. The largest streams of European immigrants came between 1900 and 1920, that is before, after and during World War I. At other times, for example, during the Depression and during World War II, smaller numbers of immigrants came to the US. Since the 1960-s more and more people have fled the poverty and wars in Asia and Latin America in the hope of finding a better life in the United States.
There is, of course, another side to American’s ethnic pluralism and racial variety, one that Americans, more than other people, are aware of. The first slaves brought to what is today the United States arrived in Virginia on a board of a Dutch ship in 1619. On the eve of the American Revolution slavery was already firmly established in what was shortly to be the United States of America. In 1776 probably about a fifth of all inhabitants in the British colonies in America were Negro slaves.
Between 1777 and 1804 all states in the new republic north of Maryland abolished slavery. However, neither the North nor the South would escape the grave social, economic, political and moral problems that are the heritage of slavery. Although the Civil War (1861-1865) brought the end to slavery in all of the states, discrimination against Blacks would continue.

Задание 19 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

We arrived at Gatwick at 11.15 and made our way to the check-in desk. A ________ we had some free time, so everyone went to the arcade, ate at Burger King or looked around the shops. The flight was quiet and almost all of us played games.
Not many of us had been to Rome and so we saw a very different environment from the one we live in. The houses were yellow, there were terracotta tiles on the floor outside the cafes and the most common transport was the moped. We got to our hotel, sorted out our rooms unpacked and went out to dinner. The pasta was exquisite!
Lovely sunshine and comfortable temperatures were the norm and very nice it all was too, B ________ — but then we were warm and dry in the coach, C ________. The weather was important as most of our visits were to Roman remains.
The real Roman bit started with the trips round the Forum, Palatine Hill and the Colosseum D ________. On our way back to our hotel we were given a guided tour to the Church of San Clemente.
E ________ took us back to the level of Nero’s Rome with its streets, alleys and the best preserved temple to Mithras in the world.
We spent time in Ostia, the port of Rome. During the 3rd century ВС the town was primarily used as a naval base and played an important part in various wars. The remains of the town itself are in excellent condition, F ________.
Everything we had learned about or seen in pictures suddenly came to life. We hadn’t been there before but we felt that we knew it.

1. reaching down 50 metres below the modern street
2. considering that it was on at least one occasion partially destroyed by pirates
3. which would have made the group gasp in awe
4. after we had confirmed everything
5. where the cruel world of Roman entertainment was mixed with the amazing technology below stage
6. so it didn’t matter
7. except for the coach drive from Rome to Sorrento

A-4; B-7; C-6; D-5; E-1; F-2

We arrived at Gatwick at 11.15 and made our way to the check-in desk. After we had confirmed everything we had some free time, so everyone went to the arcade, ate at Burger King or looked around the shops. The flight was quiet and almost all of us played games.
Not many of us had been to Rome and so we saw a very different environment from the one we live in. The houses were yellow, there were terracotta tiles on the floor outside the cafes and the most common transport was the moped. We got to our hotel, sorted out our rooms unpacked and went out to dinner. The pasta was exquisite!
Lovely sunshine and comfortable temperatures were the norm and very nice it all was too, except for the coach drive from Rome to Sorrento — but then we were warm and dry in the coach, so it didn’t matter. The weather was important as most of our visits were to Roman remains.
The real Roman bit started with the trips round the Forum, Palatine Hill and the Colosseum where the cruel world of Roman entertainment was mixed with the amazing technology below stage. On our way back to our hotel we were given a guided tour to the Church of San Clemente.
Reaching down 50 metres below the modern street took us back to the level of Nero’s Rome with its streets, alleys and the best preserved temple to Mithras in the world.
We spent time in Ostia, the port of Rome. During the 3rd century ВС the town was primarily used as a naval base and played an important part in various wars. The remains of the town itself are in excellent condition, considering that it was on at least one occasion partially destroyed by pirates.
Everything we had learned about or seen in pictures suddenly came to life. We hadn’t been there before but we felt that we knew it.

Задание 20 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

As the world’s fifth most widely spoken language and A ________ speaking Russian is a skill with huge rewards. Around half a billion people speak Russian worldwide, and while speaking to them is one of the best forms of practice, there are plenty of courses to help you on your way B ________. Some Moscow institutes have language courses but the process takes time.
The Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship has a long tradition of teaching Russian to foreigners. The university has two programs C ________, focusing on the core skills of vocabulary, grammar, writing, reading, listening and speaking. Depending on the student’s level D ________ with an exam at the end.

The certificate can be used to help to apply for Russian citizenship. Moscow State University has a Russian language centre. The centre has English, French and German speaking teachers but the lessons E ________. Courses can range in length from one week to a year, and students can obtain a certificate at the end. The centre also offers different programs focusing on business, law and other specialties. The university also offers lodging in a Russian family F ________.

1. are held mainly in Russian
2. to increase exposure to the language
3. the birthplace of some of history’s greatest writers
4. to reading some Tolstoy in the original
5. six academic hours a day
6. to take you to the next level
7. it takes 36 hours or 72 hours

A-3; B-4; C-6; D-7; E-1; F-2

As the world’s fifth most widely spoken language and the birthplace of some of history’s greatest writers speaking Russian is a skill with huge rewards. Around half a billion people speak Russian worldwide, and while speaking to them is one of the best forms of practice, there are plenty of courses to help you on your way to reading some Tolstoy in the original. Some Moscow institutes have language courses but the process takes time.
The Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship has a long tradition of teaching Russian to foreigners. The university has two programs to take you to the next level, focusing on the core skills of vocabulary, grammar, writing, reading, listening and speaking. Depending on the student’s level it takes 36 hours or 72 hours with an exam at the end.

В школе этого не расскажут:  Спряжение глагола ronéoter во французском языке.

The certificate can be used to help to apply for Russian citizenship. Moscow State University has a Russian language centre. The centre has English, French and German speaking teachers but the lessons are held mainly in Russian. Courses can range in length from one week to a year, and students can obtain a certificate at the end. The centre also offers different programs focusing on business, law and other specialties. The university also offers lodging in a Russian family to increase exposure to the language.

Задание 21 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Second-hand clothes were popular in the 1990-s, when A ________ with counterfeit and cheap gear from Europe and the US. And B ________ there are still plenty of bargains to snap up.

While the old saying goes that clothes absorb their owner’s spirit, it is best to check that nothing else has got on them too. Second-hand clothes coming from abroad have to be disinfected in special cleaning factories C ________.

Some shops combine economical bargains with well-known brands and new stock and famous labels. The prices are set by our trading specialist. They may vary from 10 roubles for T-shirts to 5000 roubles ($180) for American vintage army coats, depending on the brand, D ________.

Refunds and returns are not given in thrift stores, E ________ how many times an item was worn. It is best to check the product carefully for any holes or stains and ensure it fits before paying.

To get the best bargains ahead of the crowds it is also useful to know F ________. New stock usually comes in once a week but for some stores it is only once a month.

1. before passing through customs
2. despite a decline in popularity
3. the market was flooded
4. while fashion comes and goes
5. what day new goods arrive
6. as it is not possible to prove
7. quality and the state of the thing

A-3; B-2; C-1; D-7; E-6; F-5

Second-hand clothes were popular in the 1990-s, when the market was flooded with counterfeit and cheap gear from Europe and the US. And despite a decline in popularity there are still plenty of bargains to snap up.

While the old saying goes that clothes absorb their owner’s spirit, it is best to check that nothing else has got on them too. Second-hand clothes coming from abroad have to be disinfected in special cleaning factories before passing through customs.

Some shops combine economical bargains with well-known brands and new stock and famous labels. The prices are set by our trading specialist. They may vary from 10 roubles for T-shirts to 5000 roubles ($180) for American vintage army coats, depending on the brand, quality and the state of the thing.

Refunds and returns are not given in thrift stores, as it is not possible to prove how many times an item was worn. It is best to check the product carefully for any holes or stains and ensure it fits before paying.

To get the best bargains ahead of the crowds it is also useful to know what day new goods arrive. New stock usually comes in once a week but for some stores it is only once a month.

Задание 22 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Attics in the capital are mostly rented out as commercial sites by different firms or shops, while in the United States and Europe A ________. But the young loft apartment market is on the march, particularly among well-off Moscovites.

Despite the industrial facade loft apartments are in some of the trendiest areas. Lofts are usually located in former factories and warehouses – and developers tend to stick to an industrially minimalist design. Brick walls with no plaster, wooden floors and very high ceilings are complemented with large windows B ________.

Classic lofts are apartments converted from industrial premises like factories, C ________.

When lofts first appeared in the US and Europe in the early 20th century they were snapped up on the cheap by artists and sculptors D ________. The vast space allowed them to put everything they needed for creativity there and work in the comfort of the apartment.

Now they are used not only as apartments but also for creative space. In Moscow there are plenty of contemporary art centres in attics. The most popular loft location in the capital is the former chocolate factory, Krasny Oktyabr. In 2009 the factory E ________ with showrooms, art galleries, design bureaus, nightclubs and restaurants. The area is now one of the trendiest locations in town, and it is easy F ________.

1. but the style of the site is kept unchanged
2. allowing lots of light to enter the apartment
3. was converted into a creative cluster
4. to spend a day walking round all the features
5. being popular with innovative commercial firms
6. due to the low cost of renovation and rental
7. they are often used for offices and apartments

A-7; B-2; C-1; D-6; E-3; F-4

Attics in the capital are mostly rented out as commercial sites by different firms or shops, while in the United States and Europe they are often used for offices and apartments. But the young loft apartment market is on the march, particularly among well-off Moscovites.

Despite the industrial facade loft apartments are in some of the trendiest areas. Lofts are usually located in former factories and warehouses – and developers tend to stick to an industrially minimalist design. Brick walls with no plaster, wooden floors and very high ceilings are complemented with large windows allowing lots of light to enter the apartment.

Classic lofts are apartments converted from industrial premises like factories, but the style of the site is kept unchanged.

When lofts first appeared in the US and Europe in the early 20th century they were snapped up on the cheap by artists and sculptors due to the low cost of renovation and rental. The vast space allowed them to put everything they needed for creativity there and work in the comfort of the apartment.

Now they are used not only as apartments but also for creative space. In Moscow there are plenty of contemporary art centres in attics. The most popular loft location in the capital is the former chocolate factory, Krasny Oktyabr. In 2009 the factory was converted into a creative cluster with showrooms, art galleries, design bureaus, nightclubs and restaurants. The area is now one of the trendiest locations in town, and it is easy to spend a day walking round all the features.

Задание 23 на текст и пропущенные части

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя.

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Like Jupiter, Uranu and Neptune, it is a gas giant.

The inside of Saturn is probably a core of iron, nickel, silicon and oxygen compounds, A ________, then a layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium and finally, an outer gaseous layer.

Saturn has 62 known moons orbiting the planet; B ________. The largest moon is Titan, which is larger in volume than the planet Mercury. Titan is the second-largest moon in the Solar System.

Also around Saturn there is a very large system of rings, made of ice C ________. Saturn is about 1400 000 000 km from the Sun. It revolves or orbits around the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years, or once every 10,755.7 Earth days. Saturn travels D ________ of 21,637 miles per hour or 34,821 kilometers per hour in its orbit around the Sun.

Saturn’s atmosphere E ________ to form oval shaped clouds, similar to the clearer spots seen in Jupiter. These oval spots are cyclonic storms, the same as cyclones seen on Earth. In 1990 the Hubble Space Telescopes found a very large white cloud near Saturn’s equator. Storms like the one in 1990 were known as Great White Spots. These unique storms only exist for a short time and only F ________ , at the time of the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.

1. happen about every 30 Earth years
2. surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen
3. 53 are officially named
4. are some of the fastest in the Solar System
5. at an average speed
6. with smaller amounts of rocks and dust
7. is also known

A-2; B-3; C-6; D-5; E-7; F-1

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Like Jupiter, Uranu and Neptune, it is a gas giant.

The inside of Saturn is probably a core of iron, nickel, silicon and oxygen compounds, surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, then a layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium and finally, an outer gaseous layer.

Saturn has 62 known moons orbiting the planet; 53 are officially named. The largest moon is Titan, which is larger in volume than the planet Mercury. Titan is the second-largest moon in the Solar System.

Also around Saturn there is a very large system of rings, made of ice with smaller amounts of rocks and dust. Saturn is about 1400 000 000 km from the Sun. It revolves or orbits around the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years, or once every 10,755.7 Earth days. Saturn travels at an average speed of 21,637 miles per hour or 34,821 kilometers per hour in its orbit around the Sun.

Saturn’s atmosphere is also known to form oval shaped clouds, similar to the clearer spots seen in Jupiter. These oval spots are cyclonic storms, the same as cyclones seen on Earth. In 1990 the Hubble Space Telescopes found a very large white cloud near Saturn’s equator. Storms like the one in 1990 were known as Great White Spots. These unique storms only exist for a short time and only happen about every 30 Earth years , at the time of the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.

Self-Assessment: 5 Tips for Writing Your Performance Evaluation

A performance evaluation is an important tool for keeping communication flowing between teams. Periodic evaluation is a chance for managers and employees to review the recent past and discuss expectations moving forward. An evaluation also serves as an opportunity to set goals, both as individuals and teams.

Along with the performance evaluation often comes the self-assessment. An opportunity for employees to self-reflect and consider what their strengths and weaknesses are, self-assessments are not only important to growth as a worker but as a person. By critiquing their own work and behavior, employees can gain insight that helps them improve.

For managers, self-assessments offer several benefits. They illuminate how the employee sees themselves in the context of the team and the organization at large. It also highlights any disagreements or misunderstandings between the manager and the employee. And, of course, self-assessments offer an opportunity for feedback to managers about what motivates and incentivizes an employee to do their best work.

«Modern employees are intrinsically motivated to work autonomously and by opportunities to learn and grow. So, from a management perspective, self-assessments – which contribute to autonomy and development – are incredibly valuable,» said David Hassell, founder and CEO of 15Five. «Work product from employees who are intrinsically motivated tends to be more impactful and sustainable than work derived from extrinsic motivators, such as bonuses or fear tactics.»

Despite its importance, writing a self-assessment is no easy task. Analyzing oneself can be immensely difficult, especially when that analysis is submitted to a supervisor for review. If you’re having trouble getting started, these five tips will help you learn how to write a self-assessment. [Learn more about performance management.]

1. Be proud.

One major goal of the self-evaluation is to highlight your accomplishments and recollect milestones in your professional development. A good self-assessment should point to specific tasks and projects that highlight your best work. When describing those accomplishments, employees should emphasize the impact those achievements had on the whole business to emphasize their value to the company.

Julie Rieken, CEO of Applied Training Systems Inc., said you should strive to connect your actions with a manager’s goals. This type of alignment is encouraging to any manager and conveys that you understand your role within the larger context of the company.

«If your manager needs to hit a certain number, share how you played a role in hitting the number,» said Rieken. «Accomplishments you list should connect with business objectives.»

2. Be honest and critical.

Self-assessments aren’t just about highlighting triumphs. You should also critically assess the times you came up short. Being honest means pointing out weaknesses that could be improved upon or past failures that taught you a valuable lesson. Recognizing your own flaws is important to demonstrating your ability to learn and grow.

Still, it’s important to not be self-deprecating in your assessment. Timothy Butler, a senior fellow and director of career development programs at Harvard Business School, advised employees to use developmental language when critiquing the areas in which they need to improve.

«You don’t want to say, ‘Here’s where I really fall down,'» Butler told the Harvard Business Review. «Instead, say, ‘Here’s an area I want to work on. This is what I’ve learned. This is what we should do going forward.'»

3. Continuously strive for growth.

It’s important during self-assessments to never stagnate; humans are constantly adapting, learning and changing. Whether you’ve had a great year or fallen short of your own expectations, it’s important to remain committed to improving and educating yourself. Taking a moment to list your goals and objectives for the coming year during a self-assessment demonstrates that you are not content to settle.

«The first step is to adopt a growth mindset and understand that adult human potential is not fixed. We are always in a state of becoming, and our potential increases or decreases based on many factors, including the environments where we live and work,» Hassel said. «Adopting that framework prevents people from becoming too transfixed on their perceived failures and from becoming too attached to their triumphs.»

Managers will also see a willingness to improve and take on new things as a sort of coachability. If an employee has been struggling, making room for growth could improve their performance. On the other hand, an employee thriving in their position requires growth opportunities to prevent boredom or stagnation.

4. Track your accomplishments.

When it’s time to discuss your accomplishments in your self-assessment, providing hard data to show what you’ve done throughout the year is highly beneficial. Employees and managers generally know how you have performed, but having concrete numbers to back up any assertion strengthens the validity of your self-assessment.

«If employees . spend 10 seconds a day writing down their one biggest accomplishment, success, metric hit, feedback received for that day, they’d have 10 times more data than they’d ever need for self-assessment,» said Mike Mannon, president of WD Communications.

Hank Yuloff, owner of Yuloff Creative Marketing Solutions, agreed: «We teach our clients to keep a list of daily and weekly accomplishments so that when it is time for the self-assessment, there is very little guesswork as to how valuable they are to the company.»

5. Be professional.

Employees should always be professional when writing self-assessments. This means not bashing the boss for poor leadership skills or criticizing co-workers for making their lives more difficult. It also means not gushing in an overly personal way about a co-worker or manager you really like. Whether you are providing critical or positive feedback, it’s important to remain professional.

Being professional means giving the appraisal its due attention, like any other important project that crosses your desk. Dominique Jones, chief operating officer at BetterU Education Corporation, advised treating your self-evaluation like a work of art that builds over time. You’ll be much happier with the result if you give yourself time to reflect and carefully support your self-assessment, she said.

«Use examples to support your assertions, and … make sure that you spell and grammar check your documents,» Jones wrote in a blog post. «These are all signs of how seriously you take the process and its importance to you.»

Sample: How to Write a Self Assessment

While keeping these tips in mind can help you with writing a self-evaluation, few things improve the process like seeing an example firsthand. To that end, we’ve created a sample self-assessment to help guide you as you create your own.

Strengths:

  • I am a dedicated employee who understands not only my role and responsibilities, but the larger mission of our business. I don’t simply strive to do my job, but to help make this company a success.
  • I am a good communicator who stays on task and helps rally the team when cooperation is needed to meet a deadline or solve a problem.
  • I am a creative thinker who can come up with novel solutions and improve upon conventional ways of doing things.

Weaknesses:

  • I am somewhat disorganized, which often impacts my productivity. I have been learning how to better manage my time and intentionally direct my efforts. While it remains a challenge, I have seen some progress and look forward to continually improving.
  • Sometimes I do not ask for help when I could benefit from assistance. I am always willing to help my teammates, and I know they feel the same way, so I will try to be more vocal about when I need a helping hand moving forward.

Core Values:

  • I believe in teamwork and cooperation to overcome any obstacle.
  • I value respect and transparency between employees and managers.
  • I value friendship and building warm relationships within the workplace.
  • I strive to be a welcoming and helpful presence to my co-workers.

Accomplishments:

  • I never missed a deadline in the past year and, in fact, often submitted my work early.
  • I’ve gone above and beyond my job description to ensure our team operates at an optimal level, staying late and helping others whenever it could contribute to our collective goal.
  • I created and delivered a presentation, stepping outside my comfort zone to do so. It was well received and bolstered my confidence regarding public speaking.

Goals:

  • I would like to continue developing my presentation and public speaking skills. As a weakness that I listed on previous self-assessments, it is gratifying to see that I have made some progress on this skill set and I would like to double down on the growth.
  • In terms of professional growth, I aspire to enter a managerial role. I enjoy working closely with my teammates and considering the bigger picture, and I often help direct resources in an efficient way. I could see myself as a manager who helps facilitate teamwork and encourages workers to do their best.

Feedback:

  • My manager is pleasant and transparent. I never have to guess where I stand. I appreciate the openness and direct communication so that I know what is expected of me and how well I am meeting those expectations.
  • I would like to be more involved in decision-making at the team level. I believe each team member has unique insights that supervisors cannot fully understand since their perspective is different, and I believe involving staff members in strategic planning could greatly improve results.

Keeping things simple and using short declarative bullet points is key to writing an effective self-assessment. While the exact nature of your self-assessment might vary depending on your industry or your job description, this basic model can help guide you when writing a self-evaluation.

Making performance evaluations a regular occurrence

Performance evaluations help everyone know where they stand and how they’re performing, including in relation to the goals of the organization. Often, workplaces engage in performance evaluations annually, but they should become an ongoing process to fairly and accurately evaluate employees and create a culture of constant communication and feedback.

«[S]elf-assessments cannot merely be an annual event. They are part of an ongoing and regular practice of reflection,» Hassell said. «If you look at a snapshot of performance, you are never going to see the truth. It’s too easy to focus on a particular experience or event and then create an overarching story around performance.»

Doing so will avoid «recency bias,» or a type of tunnel vision that centers around recent events, rather than the big picture. It also creates an inclusive, give-and-take culture where employees are invited to participate in offering feedback to their managers as much as their managers offer them feedback. Overall, an inclusive and communicative workplace has a greater chance of succeeding.

«Managers who adopt a coaching or mentorship role can provide external reflections and much-needed perspective so employees can see failures as learning opportunities,» Hassell said. «They can also enjoy the praise of a job well done but not dwell on past triumphs, because every company has a continued need for peak employee performance over time.»

Additional reporting by Katherine Arline, Marci Martin and Jennifer Post.

Causes of Unethical Business Behavior and How to Avoid Them

Pressure from supervisors is one of the biggest reasons why people indulge in unethical practices. When managers set unrealistic and unachievable targets, they are indirectly communicating to their sub-ordinates that, «I want it done, no matter what». Sub-ordinates on the other hand are under immense pressure to complete their targets as their career prospects, depend to a large extent, on their performance, and if the performance is not up to what the manager expects, the chances of growth are slim.

Personal greed and a desire to further one’s career are the other reasons that push people to indulge in unethical business practices. A lot of times, executives are promised a huge bonus if they achieve their targets and the lure of money compels them to cheat. Employees may also do certain things to prolong their career in a company as the thought that they may be fired is too repulsive to them. These factors compel employees to such an extent that they don’t think twice before behaving in an unethical manner, such as selling unsafe products, keeping customers in the dark, manipulating systems to their own advantage, etc.

How to Speak Business English Expertly: 56 Essential Phrases for Meetings, Phone Calls and More

On your way to becoming a global businessperson?

English is the most essential language for business success at the moment.

In big business China, more people are currently studying English than in any other country.

Recent studies have shown that larger international hubs (centers) use English to communicate, while less populated areas (places with fewer people) are less likely to do so.

If you are planning to travel for work, you will probably find yourself in some major urban (big city) centers. English will be the universal (common) language in the office, so to get ahead in business it’s good to know some of the language you will be using every day.

Ways to Improve Speaking for Business English

There are tons of ways to improve your English speaking skills for business matters. The key is to always keep practicing—and to find the perfect resources for your business purposes!

  • Get some podcasts.This series of podcasts from the British Council will help you to improve your English in your workplace. They are suitable (appropriate) if you are at an intermediate or advanced level.
  • Listen to others. Pay attention to every native speaker you encounter. When answering a question they ask you, listen carefully to their choice of words and try to use those same words in your answer.
  • Practice with real business English v >The videos are personalized based on your language level and learning needs. You’ll learn words that matter to your work, while hearing business English the way native speakers use it. It’s an effective but fun language tool that you can carry in your pocket with the iOS or Android mobile app.

    You find a variety of business English videos that include “Introducing Business Colleagues,” “Business Buzzwords,” “Control Your Inbox!” and “What Warren Buffet Thinks About Cash.”

    An added bonus is that if you want to work on other topics later, simply use the same, familiar FluentU platform to learn with videos from other categories, such as “Science and Tech,” “Politics and Society” or mix it up with “Arts and Entertainment” or “Health and Lifestyle.”

    Every spoken word is subtitled, complete with an in-context definition, image and multiple example sentences.

    All you have to do is tap or click on one of the words in those subtitles to get more information. For example, if you tap on the word “brought,” you will see this:

    Plus, these great videos are all accompanied by interactive features and active learning tools, like multimedia flashcards and fun games like “fill in the blank.”

    If you are interested in watching fun, relevant videos and practicing language actively in the process, be sure to create a FluentU account and try out this one-of-a-kind language learning program!

    • Read, read, read!Uptick from Forbes is for more advanced business English learners. The articles are written for and by native speakers, so the language is very current and focused on business. Business Wire is a Canadian online magazine that operates as a b usiness news and press release network. They cover an incredible range of business sectors (areas) so the language varies a great deal. The English Learning Blog is a wonderful list that includes free e-books you can download.

    Business English Phrases for Speaking in 3 Conference Call Situations

    Skype. Face Time. Tinychat. Google Talk. Or WebEx. The list goes on and on. If you are in business, it is almost certain that you’ll use one or more of these tools. These programs are used in business for person-to-person calls, interviews, conference calls, instant messaging or recording audio files.

    Before discussing phrases you can use during conference calls, let’s talk a little bit more about what you should expect.

    First, it is always a good idea to learn the software you will be using beforehand. Your conference call will go a lot smoother with just a little preparation before you start. Get on the software and learn where all the key features are. Try a test call to see how things go.

    Talk with a friend at work and look at the agenda together (there should be one—if there is not, ask for one). The agenda is a document that will list the topics of the upcoming meeting. You will be able to ask your work friend about the words you don’t understand and practice talking about them.

    Use the mute button if you are not speaking while on an audio conference call. It is more polite and business-like, and can give you time to really listen and think about what people are saying.

    If you are on a video conference call, look interested and nod your head when appropriate. It can be a bit strange at first but try to be as engaged (involved) as possible. Try to be as natural and friendly as you normally are. (I’m sure you are!)

    The British Council has some fabulous resources for practicing your conference call skills.

    Some native speakers may use complicated idioms during conference calls. If you feel confident enough “dive in,” join in and give it a try too. However, in business English on a conference call, a plain spoken approach with fewer idioms will get your point across more clearly and reduce your stress levels.

    Here are some scenarios you may come across when on a conference call, and some phrases to help you through them.

    56 Business English Phrases for Speaking Professionally and Advancing Your Career

    1. Beginning a Conference Call

    You will either hear these phrases or need to use them yourself while talking to people on a conference call.

    • “Are we all on?”
    • “Can I ask that we all state our names, please?”
    • “I’m here. It’s [your name] in [your city].”

    These are useful phrases to check if everyone is present and has joined the conversation. When asked, just respond, “yes” and give your name and position, or job at the company.

    • “Can everybody hear me?”

    The chairperson or person in charge of the meeting usually says this. It’s useful to make sure everyone is present for the start.

    2. Clarifying Things on a Phone Call

    When talking on a conference call, there is a chance that your Internet connection will be poor, or that the quality of the call will be poor. In these cases, you might miss out on something that someone said.

    • “Could you speak more slowly, please?”

    • “Could you repeat that, please?”

    • “Would you mind spelling that for me, please?”

    • “Could you explain that in another way, please?”

    • “I’m afraid I didn’t get that.”

    3. Taking a Break from the Conversation

    Conference calls can be stressful. It is perfectly fine to excuse yourself, but make sure you are polite and clear when you do it. Try these phrases if you need a break.

    • “[Your name] speaking. I need to leave for ten minutes. Is that okay with everyone?”

    When you return, let everybody know you are back by saying:

    • “[Your name] here. I’m back on the line again.”
    • “[Your name] just coming back in here, thanks everyone.”

    4. Starting a Great Presentation

    At some point you may be called on to give a presentation. Even native English speakers should keep these simple and not get too complicated. Business presentations can and do have a reputation for being dull. Not a lot of people enjoy sitting through tons of PowerPoint slides…do you?

    Keep it moving quickly and people will still be interested. Try these helpful phrases for a presentation:

    Introduce yourself and keep it loose and breezy (informal and light)—it will put everyone at ease.

    • “Welcome everybody, my name is [your name] and I am the designer for GPLZ Video.”
    • “Hi, I’m [your name] and I’m the designer for GPLZ Video.”
    • “Good morning/afternoon/evening ladies and gentlemen, I’m [your name].”
    • “Hi everyone, I’m [your name]. I’m going to keep this brief, as I know you’re all busy people. I’m going to make this quick for you…”

    Note: remember to use the contraction “I’m” instead of “I am” to sound more friendly and less formal.

    5. Introducing the Topic of Your Presentation

    After you’ve introduced yourself, it is time to introduce your topic of presentation.

    • “Today I’m here to talk to you about…”
    • “I’m delighted to be here today to tell you about…”
    • “Today I would like to outline our plans for…”

    This gives your audience a map, or an idea of what you will be talking about. Here are some phrases that will provide structure for your presentation, making your message neater and more organized.

    • “Firstly I’ll talk about…” or “I’ll start with some general information on…”
    • “Then I will look at…” or “then we’ll go over…”
    • “And finally we’ll look at…” or “ To conclude we’ll touch on…”
    • “I will be glad to answer any questions that you may have at the end of this presentation.”

    Try to look up from your notes as often as possible so you can engage and interest your audience and relax. Try to have fun. People are generally forgiving if you make a few mistakes.

    6. Ending Your Presentation

    This is a very simple part. Once you have given your presentation and are ready to finish, use these phrases.

    • “Well, that brings me to the end of my presentation, thanks so much for listening.”
    • “It was a real pleasure being here today. Goodbye and thank you.”
    • “Well that’s it from me. Thanks a lot.”

    7. Being an Active Participant in Meetings

    You will, at some point, be asked to take part in a meeting at your workplace. It is a good idea in business meetings to speak as clearly as possible and to be firm (strong). Remember though, “firm” does not mean “rude” or “pushy.”

    It can be easy to seem pushy if you don’t add the all-important “please” and “thank you” to your phrases. These polite terms go a long way in business English. Meetings are all about listening and letting people know you understand what is being talked about. Try these phrases when you are in a business meeting or participating in a conference call.

    First, you can use these phrases if you accidentally speak over somebody or stop them from saying something.

    • “Sorry, I interrupted you. You were saying…?”
    • “Please go on…”
    • “After you…”

    If you are not sure what somebody said, use these phrases to clarify:

    • “I’m sorry, but could you speak up a little?”
    • “I didn’t quite hear that, sorry, can you say that again?”
    • “I didn’t catch that last bit. Can you say it again please?”

    Signal phrases for when you have a question.

    • “Am I to understand that…”

    • “Sorry, but just to clarify…”

    • “So, what we’re saying is…”

    Agreeing with people.

    • “That’s an excellent point [person’s name], I totally agree with you on that.”

    • “Okay, I think we are all on the same page here…”

    • “Yes, I get what you’re saying…”

    Disagreeing with people.

    Hopefully you won’t need these too often! Remember to be polite but firm.

    • “I’m sorry but I think you may have that slightly wrong…”

    • “From our perspective, it’s a little different. Let me explain.”

    • “Well, yes and no—can I tell you how we see it?”

    8. Negotiating Successfully

    When you are taking part in a negotiation, you might get what you want, but sometimes you may not. Here are some phrases that will work for each situation. Remember, be polite, but be firm. Professional businesspeople never lose control of their emotions.

    Sometimes in a negotiation you know you are not going to win. When you go into a negotiation, you should know your “deal breaker” is. A deal break is absolutely not negotiable, or a condition that you will not accept no matter what. For example, the lowest price you are willing to accept for a product is $100 per piece. You will walk away if somebody demands a lower price.

    Perhaps you are protecting your “bottom line.” The bottom line is the financial situation beyond which you cannot operate. Try these phrases to get the negotiation “back on track” if it seems you are “not on the same page.” Meaning: Get the negotiation going in your favor if you are not in agreement.

    • “I understand that we can’t do that, but can we discuss some other alternatives?”

    • “I hear what you’re saying, but our bottom line is very clear on this one.”

    • “This is the deal breaker for us, we can’t budge.” (Budge means move, change or give up.)

    9. Planning for Future Meetings

    Everybody has a phone now, and in business it is really important to know how to greet people and leave them with a positive impression of yourself and the company you work for. Many customers’ and clients’ first interactions with you (and the company you work for) will be on the phone. Make sure you leave them with a great first impression with these phrases when you want to meet with them again:

    • “I’d like to set up a meeting with you at your earliest convenience. When are you free?”

    • “Are you free to talk again next week?”

    • “When can we talk about this again?”

    • “How does 2:30 p.m. Thursday sound?”

    • “Does Thursday at 2:30 p.m. suit you?”

    After the person has agreed to the time, it is customary to confirm one last time just to make sure the other person has really heard. If you are working in a place like an airport where there could be confusion as to the time, add the “a.m.” or “p.m.” just to be sure you have been understood:

    • “Thursday at 2:30 p.m. then, that would be fine.”

    • “Okay, I look forward to seeing you then.”

    • “Thursday at 2.30 p.m. Looking forward to it, see you then.”

    • “Thursday at 2.30 p.m., bye for now.”

    If you are already in business and your English is pretty good, learning new phrases and language to climb the corporate ladder (get a promotion) is always going to get you farther.

    English is the universal language of business all over the world. The better your English gets, the more in demand you will be as an employee. Keep listening and keep talking!

    If you liked this post, something tells me that you’ll love FluentU, the best way to learn English with real-world videos.

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