American Universities and Colleges — тема топик по английскому

Unit 5 Topic: The system of higher education in the usa Text 1. The main types of higher institutions

Higher education in the USA is the most extensive and versatile in the world. Now almost 10 million students study in American colleges and universities.

The universities are usually divided into state (or public) and private. The main difference between the two is a financial one. Private universities have very limited financial help from the State authorities.

There are four categories of higher educational establishments in the USA. Technical institutions offer two or three year courses. They prepare students for employment in different technical specialties.

Junior colleges provide two-year courses. They help the students to prepare for the further education at the universities.

Art colleges, state and independent colleges award the Bachelor’s degree and sometimes the Master’s degree in technology, art and teaching.

Universities award all degrees. Often they offer postgraduate courses for the highest degree – the Doctor’s degree.

Words and phrases to remember:

an extensive and versatile system – обширная и разнообразная система

a specialty – специальность

to offer – предлагать

to provide – обеспечивать

to prepare – готовить

to award – присуждать

a course of study – курс обучения

the Bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра

the Master’s degree – степень магистра

the Doctor’s degree – степень доктора

Answer the questions:

What two main types of institutions are there in the USA?

What is the difference between them?

What are the main categories?

Ex. 1. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Система высшего образования в США отличается большой разносторонностью.

2. Это образовательное учреждение предлагает обучение по всем

3. Эта кампания обеспечивает доступ в Интернет.

4. Он подготовился к экзамену очень хорошо.

5. После курса обучения университет присуждает степень магистра.

Text 2. College and University admission and entrance requirements

Access to higher education usually takes place after 18 years of age and after 12 years of primary and secondary studies.

First, the universities require an application including personal information.

Second, it is a high school report. It includes a school-leaving certificate with the list of all courses taken and all grades received, with courses failed and repeated, test results (SAT, ACT and Achievement test) and general assessment of the applicant’s character such as motivation, creativity, self-discipline, leadership, self-confidence and warmth of personality.

Third, it is recommendations by school teachers.

Fourth, personal commentary such as hobbies, special awards and prizes, work and travel experience, career goals and the reasons for the choice of this university.

Finally, it is an entrance examination or personal interview.

SAT – the Scholastic Aptitude Test is taken in maths and verbal activity.

ACT – the American College Testing is taken in social and natural studies.

Achievement Test – special tests in a discipline required by some colleges for admission.

Words and phrases to remember:

to take place – иметь место

to require – требовать

to apply, an application, an applicant – подавать заявление

to take, to fail, to repeat a course – учить, провалить, повторно учить

to receive a grade – получить оценку

an access to education – доступ к образованию

a school-leaving certificate – аттестат о среднем образовании

a general assessment of character – общая оценка

Answer the questions:

1. When does the person have the right to study at the university?

2. What are the main entrance requirements?

The Most Famous Universities of the USA.
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The Most Famous Universities of the USA

HARVARD UNIVERSITY is an American private Ivy League research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It was established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard was named after its first benefactor (sponsor) whose name was Harvard. Although never formally affiliated (to be a member formally of) with a church, the college primarily trained clergy. It had become secular (not religious) by the 19 th century.

Nowadays Drew Gilpin Faust is the 28 th president of Harvard. She was elected as the first woman to lead the university in 2007.

The motto of the university is “VERITAS” that means in Latin “Truth”. The nickname f the university is “Harvard Crimson” and its symbolic colour is also crimson (bright red). “Crimson” is also the name of the Harvard sports team and the daily university newspaper “Harvard Crimson”. Today more than 21.225 students study at different faculties, colleges of the university. And the Academic staff of the institution is more than 2.107 teachers and trainers.

The endowment (annual budget) of Harvard is US $ 32 billion. It is the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the world, standing at $32 billion as of September 2020. The university comprises 11 separate academic units — 10 faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study – with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area. The Business School and the athletic facilities, including Harvard Stadium are located across the Charles River in Allston and Medical, Dental, Public Health Schools are located in the Longwood Medical Area.

8 US presidents, political leaders and other best-known people, 75 Nobel Laureates have been students of Harvard. They are some of them: John Hancock, John Adams, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Al Gore, George W. Bush, Barack Obama and a lot of other foreigners who later became heads of different countries where they had come from.

Harvard University Library System is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises over 80 individual libraries holding some 15 million volumes. According to American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the USA and one of the largest in the world.

YALE UNIVERSITY is an American private Ivy League research university located in New Haven, Connecticut, the United States. It was founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut. The university is the third oldest institution of higher education in the USA. Originally it also trained clergy, just as in Harvard, and political leaders for the colony. In 1718 the college was renamed “Yale College” to honour the gift from Elihu Yale, a governor of the British East India Company.

The motto of Yale is “LUX ET VERITAS” that means in Latin “Light and Truth”. The symbolic colour of the university is Yale Blue. The nicknames of the Yale University are: Bulldogs, Elis, and Yale’s. The president of the university is Richard C. Levin. The academic staff numbers 3.619 people. Nowadays 11.593 students study at the Yale University.

The endowment of the university is US $ 19.3 billion as of 2020 and it is the 2 nd largest endowment of any academic institution in the world.

Yale’s Library System consists of more than 2 dozen libraries and holds 12.5 million volumes. 49 Nobel Laureates have graduated from Yale. It also produced 5 US Presidents, 19 US Supreme Court Justices and several foreign heads of state.

Yale Law School is particularly well-regarded. It is the most selective law School in the USA. In 2007 outgoing (nowadays) Yale President Rick Levin characterized Yale’s institutional priorities: “First, among the nation’s finest research universities, Yale is committed to excellence in undergraduate education. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders.”

Yale is famous for its Gothic architecture of the University campuses. It also has several iconic modern buildings. Yale also owns and has restored many noteworthy 19 th century mansions along Hill house Avenue, which was considered the most beautiful street in America by Charles Dickens when he visited the USA in the 1840-s. The decorative friezes on the buildings depict the style of the middle Ages architecture.

The Statue of Nathan Hale, the national Revolutionary War hero is in front of Connecticut Hall. It is worth mentioning that the prototype of the Yale ideal in the early 19 th century was a manly yet aristocratic scholar and patriot who regretted he had but one life to lose for his country.

The Yale University as well as Harvard has their own University Police. A variety of safety services are available including blue phones, a safety escort and a shuttle service.

Yale’s museums’ collections are also of international importance. The Yale University Art Gallery is the country’s first-university affiliated art museum. It contains more than 180.000 works and important collections of modern art.

  1. When and where was Harvard University established?
  2. Whom did it train originally in the 17 th century?
  3. Who is the president of Harvard nowadays?
  4. What is the motto of Harvard and what about other symbols of the university?
  5. What is the endowment of Harvard?
  6. How many students are there at the university today?
  7. What famous political leaders and other well-known people graduated from Harvard?
  8. Where is Yale University located?
  9. When was it founded?
  10. Why is it called “Yale”?
  11. What is the motto of the university?
  12. Who is the president of Yale?
  13. Which school of the university is particularly regarded?
  14. What are the most important priorities of the university?
  15. What are Yale’s University campuses famous for?

Образование в США / Education in the USA

Education in the USA

America is a huge country and I can not even imagine how many schools and kindergartens there are. Education in the USA is provided in public, private and home schools. The educational system in the USA and Russia is completely different. First of all children go to school there for 12 years. And also the system and program is totally different. Also every state has different system of education. For this reason it’s not easy for parents to decide where education can be better for their children.

Most part of children go to public schools. Government usually pays to these schools. Private schools are very expensive. But the level of education is so much better. And colleges and universities actually want to see students from private schools.

At the age of 5-6 years child goes to elementary school. Here they study maths, reading, writing, music, art and physical education.

At the age of 11-12 children go to middle school. Here students study English, history, science and so on.

In the high school children start to choose subjects that they need. After high school students are getting ready for SAT. It will help them to enter the college and university.

After school children can do extra classes is dancing, sport, theatre and art.

American system of marks is the same like in the United Kingdom. A,B,C,D,F, where A is excellent and F is very bad.

As you can see education in the USA is really different, but children there have also excellent knowledge.

Образование в США

Америка — огромная страна и я даже не могу представить, сколько там школ и детских садов. Образование в США проходит в государственной, частной школах или школе на дому. Система образования в США и России абсолютно разные. Прежде всего, дети ходят в школу там на протяжении 12 лет. И конечно, система и программа обучения там совершенно другая. А ещё система и программа там совершенно другие, отличные от наших. Именно поэтому нелегко родителям решить, куда отправить детей получать образование.

Большая часть детей идут в государственную школу. Правительство обычно оплачивает эти школы. А вот частные школы очень дорогие. Но и уровень подготовки там куда лучше. Колледжи и университеты хотят видеть студентов именно из частных школ.

В возрасте 5-6 лет ребёнок идёт в начальную школу. Тут они изучают математику, чтение, письмо, музыку, искусство и физкультуру.

В возрасте 11-12 лет дети идут в среднюю школу. Тут уже они начинают изучать английский язык, историю и разные науки. В высшей школе дети могут выбирать нужные им предметы. А после высшей школы они готовятся к тестам SAT. Они помогут поступить в колледж или университет. После школы дети могут пойти на дополнительные занятия танцами, спортом, театром и искусством.

Американская система отметок такая же как и в Великобритании. A,B,C,D,F, где А -отлично, а F- очень плохо.

Как видите, образование в США на самом деле другое, но у детей там тоже отличные знания.

Education in the USA — Образование в США (2)

The peculiar feature of American education is the absence of national administration. Each of the 50 states controls and directs its own school. Most states require that children attend school from the time they reach six or 7 years old until they are 16 or 17.

There is no school uniform organization or curriculum throughout the nation. But certain common features exist. Preschool education is part of the elementary school. Elementary and secondary schools consist of 12 years of classes, which meet for about ten month a year, five days a week and five hours a day. Almost every elementary school curriculum includes English, mathematics, science, social studies, music, art and physical education. Many schools include classes teaching basic computer skills.

After graduating from secondary schools a growing number of Americans go on to higher education. American institutions of higher education include: technical training schools, community colleges; and universities which contain one or more colleges and graduate schools offering master’s or doctoral degree programmes.

Английский ( Топики/Сочинения ): Education in the USA — Образование в США (4)

Education in the USA (4)

Education in the United States of America is compulsory for children from the age of 6 till 16 (or 18). It involves 12 years of schooling. A school year starts at the end of August or at the beginning of September and ends in late June or early July. The whole school year is divided into three terms/trimesters or four quarters. American students have winter, spring and summer holidays which last 2 or 3 weeks and 6 or 8 weeks, respectively. The length of the school year varies among the states as well as the day length. Students go to school 5 days a week.
The American education system consists of 3 basic components: elementary, secondary and higher education. There is also such a notion as preschool education. At the age of 4 or 5 children just get acquainted with the formal education in a nursery school. The preschool education programme aims to prepare children for elementary school through playing and help them to acquire the experience of association. It lasts for one year. Then they go to the first grade (or grade 1).
Elementary education starts when pupils are 6 years old. The programme of studies in the elementary school includes the following subjects: English, Arithmetic, Geography, History of the USA, Natural sciences, Physical Training, Singing, Drawing, wood or metal work. The education is mostly concentrated on the basic skills (speaking, reading, writing and arithmetic). Sometimes children also learn some foreign languages, general history and such new subjects as drug and sex education. The main goal of elementary education is the general intellectual, social and physical development of a pupil from 5 to 12 or 15 years old.
Secondary education begins when children move on to high or secondary school in the ninth grade, where they continue their studies until the twelfth grade. The secondary school curriculum is built around specific subjects rather than general skills. Although there is always a number of basic subjects in the curriculum: English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Physical Education, the students have an opportunity to learn some elective subjects, which are not necessary for everybody. After the first two years of education they can select subjects according to their professional interests. The electives are to be connected with the students’ future work or further education at university or college. Every high school has a special teacher — a guidance counselor who helps the students to choose these elective subjects. Moreover, he helps them with some social problems, too. The elective courses are different in various schools.
Members of each grade in high school have special names: students in the ninth grade are called freshmen, tenth graders are called sophomores, eleventh graders are juniors and as for twelfth graders, they are seniors.
After graduating from high schools the majority of the Americans go on studying at higher education establishments. In universities they have to study for four years to get a bachelor’s degree. In order to get a master’s degree they must study two years more and, besides, be engaged in a research work.

Образование в США (4)

Образование в Соединённых Штатах Америки обязательно для детей от 6 до 16 (или 18) лет. Оно подразумевает 12 лет учёбы в школе. Учебный год в Америке начинается в конце августа или в начале сентября, а заканчивается в конце июня или в начале июля. Учебный год состоит из трёх триместров или четырёх четвертей. Зимние, весенние и летние каникулы длятся 2—3 или 6—8 недель соответственно. Продолжительность учебного года и учебного дня варьируется в зависимости от штата. Дети учатся 5 дней в неделю и добираются до школы, как правило, на школьном автобусе.
Американская система образования состоит из трёх основообразующих компонентов: начального, среднего и высшего образования. Помимо этого, в Америке существует понятие дошкольного образования. В возрасте 4—5 лет дети только начинают знакомиться с образовательным процессом в детском саду. Цель программы дошкольного обучения — методом игры подготовить детей к начальной школе, помочь им получить опыт общения. Когда им исполняется 6 лет, они поступают в 1-й класс начальной школы.
Учебная программа начальной школы включает в себя следующие предметы: английский язык, арифметика, география, история США, природоведение, физкультура, пение, рисование, трудовое обучение. В основном акцент ставится на обучении базовым навыкам — разговорной речи, чтению, письму и арифметике. Иногда дети изучают какие-либо иностранные языки и всемирную историю, а также такие предметы, как сексуальное образование, и уроки, посвященные изучению социальной роли наркотических препаратов. Главная цель начального образования — всестороннее интеллектуальное, социальное и физическое развитие ребёнка в возрасте от 5 до 12 или 15 лет.
Среднее образование начинается, когда учащиеся переходят в старшую школу, в 9-й класс; затем они продолжают обучение до 12-го класса. Расписание средней школы больше нацелено на обучение конкретным предметам, нежели общим знаниям. И хотя в расписании всегда имеется набор базовых предметов — английский язык, математика, естествознание, обществознание и физкультура, — ребятам предоставляется возможность изучать предметы по выбору, которые не являются обязательными для всех учащихся. После первых двух лет обучения они выбирают предметы в соответствии со своими профессиональными интересами. Такие предметы должны быть связаны с будущей работой учащихся либо с последующим обучением в университете или колледже. В каждой средней школе есть специальный учитель — советник по профессиональной ориентации. Он помогает учащимся определиться с выбором предметов, а также даёт советы, относящиеся к области социальных проблем. Курсы предметов на выбор различаются в зависимости от школы.
Учащиеся каждого класса старшей школы имеют свои особые имена: девятиклассники называются новичками, десятиклассники — второкурсниками, одиннадцатиклассники — студентами предпоследнего курса, а двенадцатиклассники — выпускниками.
По окончании старшей школы подавляющее число американцев продолжают обучение в высших учебных заведениях. В университетах молодые люди должны проучиться 4 года и сдать 4 зачёта, чтобы получить степень бакалавра. Для получения степени магистра нужно учиться ещё 2 года и заниматься научно-исследовательской работой. После этого студент может сделать ещё ряд необходимых работ, которые дадут ему возможность стать доктором наук.

1. At what age do American students start and finish their compulsory education?
2. How are the school years called in the United States?
3. The length of the school year varies among the states, doesn’t it?
4. What are the basic components of American education?
5. Do all children have to attend a nursery school?
6. When does elementary education start?
7. What is the main aim of elementary education?
8. The secondary school curriculum doesn’t imply a number of basic subjects, does it?
9. What are elective subjects?
10. Who is a guidance counselor?

compulsory — обязательный
to involve — включать
schooling — обучение в школе
to be divided into — делиться на
trimester — триместр
quarter — четверть
respectively — соответственно
to vary — варьироваться
to consist of — состоять из
elementary education — начальное образование
secondary education — среднее образование
higher education — высшее образование
notion — понятие
preschool education — дошкольное образование
to get acquainted with — знакомиться с
nursery school — детский сад
to aim — быть нацеленным
to acquire the experience of association — получить опыт общения
grade — класс
General History — всеобщая история
sex and drug education — сексуальное образование и уроки, посвященные изучению социальной роли наркотиков
skill — навык
goal — цель
curriculum — расписание, учебный план
specific — конкретный, определённый
Social Studies — обществознание
opportunity — возможность
elective subject — предметы по выбору
according to — в соответствии с
guidance counselor — советник по профессиональной ориентации
various — разнообразный
freshman — новичок
sophomore — студент второго курса колледжа или ученик 10-го класса средней школы
junior — студент предпоследнего курса колледжа или ученик 11-го класса средней школы
senior — студент последнего класса колледжа или ученик 12-го класса средней школы
majority — большинство
bachelor’s degree — степень бакалавра
master’s degree — степень магистра
to be engaged in — заниматься чем-либо
research work — научно-исследовательская работа

В школе этого не расскажут:  Спряжение глагола poétiser во французском языке.
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